2019 Tenshug and Trip to India: Part Two1 Aug
Today, I went again to Dehradun in public transport -Rajpur Bus. It goes upto Rajpur which is beyond Dehradun. It goes to ISBT(inter State Bus Terminal) too- it is more near toward Clement Town. It is much cleaner than it was in 2006. it cost Rs 16 from Clement to Gandaghar; conductor won’t return the remeaning change back. You must bring exact change. My intention was to go to Mussoorie by Bus. Mussoorie is my old school town on a hill top. It is about 35km from Dehradun. It is the destination for tourist. There was a huge line of passengers but ticket-window was closed. It was a hot day. I went to enquire about taxi. Mussoorie taxi and bus station is near the Railway Station. it is not where ISBT is which is nearer to Clement Town. Man under a small shade asked me if I want to book or share taxi. He said, “in a shared taxi each person will pay Rs. 320”. Taxi is Hindustan Ambassador which has a capacity to haul only 4 passengers”. I asked if I want to go to Happy Valley; he replied that it will be Rs. 200 / extra.
You will never find Hindustan Ambassador Car anywhere in India except here.
Why Uttra Khand(UK) cannot send more bus services defies all logics of business of tourism. They could send bus by every half hour. Hindustan Motor’s Ambassador Car is an old Model and is useless. it cannot climb any inclination even as small as 5 degree. it is all steel and its Kerb weight is 1104 kg which is 304 kg heavier than Maruti Van; it means Ambassador Car is already carrying 5 extra people of my weight (62kg) without any passenger in it.
I wasted so much time in Dehradun that I don’t have time left for Mussoorie, today. I went back to Clement Town. I will try my trip tomorrow.
Most probably, I will hire a taxi from Clement Town. It is around 2500/ for whole day in Mussoorie. It is worth it to avoid all the trouble of going upto Railway Station and other headaches I talked about earlier. Sometimes, I feel that there is a conspiracy to harass the tourist. In Bangalore, it was some thirty years back, since there are so many people travelling from Bangalore to Mysore, there is a bus every half an hour. Ticket window is open 12 hours. People buy ticket and board the bus- that simple.
I took a taxi to Mussoorie and back from Clement Town for Rs. 2500/. We left Clement Town at 9am and reached Happy Valley 11am. Road to Mussoorie is wide and in good condition; mountains winding and trees are thick and beautiful. There is toll tax of Rs. 60 for taxi; motor bike is free. Happy Valley is congested. I met an old acquaintance who is still working in THF.
It rained and stopped. It was no fun going about in Mussoorie with intermittent rain; although temperature was pleasant. Everywhere there is car and car for miles. It is no fun. Old charm of Mussoorie is gone except for the cool temperature.
it rained in the morning but soon it cleared away. I went to Dehradun and bought basketball ball, size 7, for the THC. I also bought a rechargeable flash light. In India, power cut happens everyday and Flash light is necessary. Flash light or some sort of power backup is necessary in summer. In school, children are often left without light and they cannot study. Flashlight is necessary thing in India. Do not leave your room without one in your bag.
There was a soccer match in Clement Town. Teams come from as far as Mussoorie.
Tibetan Children’s Home(TCH) is also organizing a Basketball tournament in memory of Skip Kindly Jr. who was one of those Engis (Whites) who helped settle One Thousand Tibetans in US. He worked in various Tibetan projects and especially for TCH since then. TCH gave a fresh coat of paint to basketball court and installed a new set of basketball backboard. TCH is taking, this year’s tournament to the next level by installing 5 sets of flood light for night game. Everyone is excited, including me.
TCH has a diesel power generator for power backup if city electricity fails and which often does. Diesel power generator is very noisy. In India, everyone goes deaf at certain age. Car, motor bike and trucks honk. Louder the honking, they feel better and safer. For a few days, honking startled me. Now I am deaf too. There are roads but barrier are more. Cows and monkeys rule the road.
I went to Dehradun today. I took shared(Savari) TukTuk (Vikram) to Dhatagarh. It cost Rs. 20. It is really hot day. Anyways, I went there and dived into it. There is a small tea stall near the end of the shopping street where Dosa is served. It cost Rs. 100/ and tea is Rs. 30. There is no AC.
I went to Dehradun today, again. It was fun. I took shared a TukTuk to ISBT(Inter State Bus Terminal) which is between Ghandhaghar and Clement Town. It cost Rs. 15. Mussoorie Bus terminal is near Railway station.
I went to attend a wedding ceremony of a friend of mine at Kelsang Restaurant at Rajpur Road. Bride groom turned out to be son of my school mate. Soon after the lunch I went to Dekyiling Tibetan Settlement Sahastradhara Road. Here too, most of the houses are three storyed, just like Clement town.
Later I went to see the famous library of Degung Kargyu. There,, I saw the copy of the original Dunhuang manuscript. There is statue of Songten Gangpo riding a horse with Vajra in one hand and other holding a Sutra. Garden is perfectly manicured with variety of plants. There is a special Chenrezig statue of wood smuggled out of Tibet. It was the high point beside Dunhuang Manuscript.
I left Dehradun for Shimla. From Dehradun, Volvo bus leaves from ISBT station for Chandighar which is Air Conditioned (AC) it cost Rs. 650/. It left ISBT Dehradun at 12:30 pm. Chandigarh is about 5 hours. From Chandigarh, there is an ordinary bus that left for Shimla. It cost Rs. 200/. Chandhigarh at 6pm has perfect weather. Ordinary bus, despite being shabby, crowded, overloaded and stops at almost all junction, it, miracle or shear luck, managed to get to Shimla at 11pm. Shimla has now two Bus stops- new Bus stop and the old bus stop. All buses that originate from other state stop at new Bus stop and all buses leave for other state from here. Old bus stop is Bus stop for local services. From new bus stop there is a taxi that will take you to old bust stop at Rs 200/ at regular hour. After 11pm, rate is changed. It can be 300 or more.
Taxi drivers demand different rate according to their whim besides having established standard fare. Such fare differences confuses the customer –tourist- which creates discord between local (taxi drivers) and customers who are Tibetans in case of Dharmasala. For instance, I took a taxi from Tsukla Khang to Gangkyi or library. The normal fare is Rs. 100 but taxi driver asked me pay Rs. 200/ which I did. This is during the day time.
My eldest uncle is 92 who is looked after at Senior Care home managed by Namgyal Monastery, Shimla. He is hard at hearing and voice is feeble. He is the oldest living there. There are about 20 senior citizens. In the past, almost 20 inmates die every year. Some have medical issues. There are 5 staff; one cook, one cleaner, one purchaser, one in-charge (a monk) and one house keeper.
There are about 23 homes of Tibetans living near the old bus stand. They are legally here. BJP has built toilets for them in 2017; one western style, two Indian style and a urinal with 24 hour water supply. They lived here for the past 35 years without a proper toilet.
I went to see the Viceregal lodge (residence of Viceroy of British India) at Observatory hills of Shimla also called Rashtrapati Niwas. Second president of India (Sarvepalli Radhakrishnana) converted this lodge into Academic study institution- Indian Institute of Advance Study.
Partition of India(India into India and Pakistan) was incubated and prepared here. It was here that infamous Shimla treaty / Accord of 1914 Tri-party was signed between Tibet, India and China. This lodge is involved in dividing India as well as Tibet- a sad history. However, any relevance of Tibet is not part of the display anywhere in these two rooms and hallway.
There are only three rooms that visitor can visit at ground floor(actually, two rooms and one hallway of no historical significance). Two upper stories are closed for visitors. Old Sprinkles system is still in use. House is made of bricks. Entry fee is Rs. 50. They limit visitor in timely fashion. There is a special guide provided for us for free who explains the significance of the room in English which is very helpful in understanding the historical context of the rooms. There is a tea stall, fire engine, ticket counter and washroom at other side of the road. I walked all the way from Mall to this historical building. Himachal Government Secretaries office, helipad which is way down below, All India Radio, Oberoi Hotel, are all along the way. It was a beautiful walk.
Tibet document or photos are not displayed here. Some local Tibetans told me that they used to be displayed in the past.
Shimla’s main markets, mall, middle market and lower market are as good as it used to be some 30 years back. It is due to the fact that Shimla does not allow vehicles to ply in all above market streets including motor bikes. It is a good example to other hill stations to imitate. Alas, Darjelling, Kalimpong, and Mussoorie have lost the old charm. They have lost the charm of hill station and acquired the looks of dusty Indian city.
I moved to Kusumti Tibetan settlement, Shimla. It is 10km away from Shimla proper. There are about 500 Tibetans livings here in 5 blocks (A, B, C, D, E), KharaPathar Block, Handicraft Block (Ungdrug Gatselling), Nyingma Tsetrul Rinpoche Gonpa. Its altitude is bit lower than proper Shimla. But climate is same- very pleasant.
Water is still rationed here. Each household is given 15 minutes of water supply in two days. That is the reality.
Housing and development
Here is my thought of housing and development for Tibetans in Shimla. In the past, all Tibetan Settlements where CTA has provided housing are required to surrender the rooms or the house back to CTA when occupants have died or left the house for good. The logic is simple. CTA would allocate the room or house to another Tibetan who had arrived from Tibet or to new born.
Such simple thinking has built in flaw. I come to realize the flaw when I saw Clement town settlement. Land in Clement town has risen in value and developed itself well. Buildings are better suited for modern human habitation unlike what is found here in Shimla.
Here is how CTA built houses in the past. A room size of twelve feet by twelve feet is given to three people; another 8 by 8 feet is given to two people with one door to access them. There is no provision for kitchen. This configuration is called “fiver”. Two of such square block is “Tenner”. Two of such “tenner” or twenty people is provided one common toilet at the entrance. CTA feels that such configuration and size provides best hygiene for our people. This is a joke. Where they are suppose to cook? How it is possible to live in such confinement and beget children. People are not animal. There is no privacy.
People have come up with a genius ways to tackle it by selling and buying such crammed rooms and make it into a living house by constructing kitchen and toilets. Now, CTA is penalizing them.
In Clement Town, houses are size of mansion but they are occupied by few seniors. Shimla has climate that is suitable for the Tibetans and CTA is not helping to ease the situation.
CTA staff quarters are far better living place then common Tibetans! Double standard and discrimination is flagrant and obvious.
Best solution is to make people own their cell block(rooms) and do whatever they want; sell or buy more cells to turn them into a standard living house with kitchen and bathroom attached. CTA should built a house that is more livable and has built in kitchen and bath room. This is 2019 not 1959. Stop penalizing people and give development a chance. That is the only way forward.
Farmlands in Tibetan settlements are turning into ghost town because they are not allowed to sell or buy them. Who will benefit for turning them into ghost town.
Do not throttle our people with dogmatic policy.
I went to look around Kusumti. Unfortunately, it was Sunday. Very few are open. Since, india was under british Raj for 200 years, they left behind the Sunday service mentality. India still considers Sunday as holiday without attending Church.
I went to Shimla from Panthaghati where Tibetan Settlement is. It is 2km away from Kusumti or it is 10km away from Shimla. I took a local bus which start from a road side which is quite a climb from E block. It cost Rs. 15 from Kusumti to Shimla old bus stop where there is a lift available to get to the Shimla Mall which is about 400 ft above the hill top. Climb is risky in rainy season with mosses growing everywhere. Some of the climbs are steep.
This morning I went to see the local representative of CTA, Kusumti, Shimla. His office is just next to the monastery. I went in and greeted them with Tashi Delek. There were two guys in the office. Response to my greeting was lost in their conversation. At the end of their conversation, guy in blue shirt said “what do you want? ”. I said, “I am here to have a look”. Since this office exist because of Tibetans living here, its staff should treat local Tibetans as friend and not some kind of nuisance. Unfortunately, such is the attitude of CTA staff who are send to serve far flung Tibetans. Sometimes, I feel that there is no need of such staff who thinks that they are master and public is slave.
Anyway, I was given a cold shoulder. Anyone who shows up at the office is for a purpose.
I thought, I might get his attention if I mention that I am an Ex-CTA. It just did not have any effect either.
I was unable to get any hard data about Tibetans living here from him. Neighbors told me that there are about 500 Tibetans living here. Many families complain about housing and how it is allocated. For instance, names of many families who are living here are missing from the original list. It seems original list is either altered or lost entirely.
Another thing that Tibetan foreigners (Canadian/US/Eu or any other citizen) should worry about is PAP (Protected Area Permit in India). There is a custom in local Tibetan community to ask for donation by Tibetan Women Association/ Tibetan Youth etc. which might inadvertently give away that you came from Foreign and you may face PAP enquiry by local police. If you check your Indian visa carefully, it mentions:
Each stay not to exceed 180 days;
No work/ business;
Not valid for prohibited /restricted and cantonment areas.
It is in your best interest, not to invite special attention.
Tsetrul Monastery has about 150 monks. Many are from Nepal. One monk I spoke to does not speak Tibetan. I had to converse in Hindi.
President of India gave a speech on television why article 370 of Jammu and Kashmir has throttled any meaningful development and especially in Ladak since independence.
Article 370 gave J&K special powers to a) make their own laws, b) legislate their law (majority are Muslim and thus Muslim law)hoist their own flag, c) they are citizen of India but rest of the Indians outside J&K are not allowed to buy land here in J&K. Such simple looking special clause Implication is huge. Indian government cannot build education, medical or any infrastructure unless it is related to defense.
I left for Dekyiling, Dehradun, at 7am from Kusumti, Shimla, in a taxi. Reserved Taxi fare was Rs. 6000/. I reached Dekyiling by 4pm. In fact, we stopped at Ponta Sahib and Harpapur for lunch at by cousins home. He works for Tibetan Medical and Astro Institute.
Dekyiling is humid and hot unlike Shimla, cold and dry.
Dekyling houses are much spacious unlike Kusumti.
Pacific mall in Dehradun is comparable to any mall in north America. It has KFC which is favorite of Tibetan kids who despise Indian spice. There is arcade games for kids too. I am told that it is the place where local Tibetans community celebrate happy occasions such as birthday celebration of H.H. the Dalai lama.
It was the second day basket ball tournament at THC. Tibetan team from Delhi walked away when they were losing against local Indian Team. There were four matches in total. Game went till 11 pm. There was this Indian team who were very tall compared to Tibetan but still they beat Indian team with good margin.
Basket ball match was held outside in open field with some semblance of flood light. I had hard time clicking photos in such light conditions. Night game is fun and healthy.
Today is semifinal match. First game was played between Tibetan team and an Indian team. Tibetan lost the game. Second match is also between a local Indian team and local Tibetan team. Game was fun for good second half. Then it turned into ugly fight.
Tibetan team was losing just by one score and they were improving. Since Tibetans have better stamina they could have easily won the game but fight. It was blow for blow and free for all.
When fight was ended, one guy from the Indian team was bleeding from nose. He was the tallest guy who pushed a Tibetan player.
After almost one hour, decision was made that Tibetan team be disqualified and tall guy was banned from entering the premises.
It is almost 12 mid night. Day was full of excitement and i fresh.
Final match was between two Indian teams- Young Blood and Warrior. It was Warrior who took the trophy and cash price of Rs. 30,000. Second prize went to Young Blood with cash prize of Rs. 20,000. Chief guest were the French group, Sol-Himl (Solidarity Himalaya) , who were visiting this school as a part of their itinerary. They help children all over Nepal and India. They painted the basket ground and wall too. They brought five basket balls with wrong size and for the wrong ground. In India basket is played outdoor instead of indoor. For outdoor, basket ball is made of rubber and for indoor it is leather. International size for man is number 7.
It rained almost whole day. Schools in India can be declared holiday by DM(District Magistrate) and Monday was declared holiday. School CEO has no power to override such orders.
In clement town there is a Tibetan Medical under TMAI administration. One of the doctors has made himself a good name among his client. I went to see him today, but told that he is booked for the next two days.
Road to Shimla and Manali are blocked due to rain and landslide. July and August is the worst weather in India as monsoon begins. March and April is bad because of heat. Sept, Oct and Nov are the best for trip anywhere in India. Delhi Majnutila is next to river Yamuna which is crossing its danger level.
US dollar is rising and exchange rate was hitting Rs. 72. I made calls to several agents such as Thomas Cook and other but best rate was offered by New Sahdev Jewellery, 43, Ghanta Ghar, New Market, Dehradun; phone number is 7500950033. This is just for information.
It is sunny day. Today, afternoon, I went to Sastradhara which is famous for Sulphur water. Each vehicle must pay entry fee of Rs. 50/ near a gate. There is cable car that leads to a Sai Baba Temple on the hill with toy train and few other man-made waterfalls. It cost Rs. 150/ per person. It is situated near Dekyiling Tibetan Area.
Sakya Monastery Hospital - Rajpur
I went to see Sakya Monastery in Rajpur. Monks were having a Puja. This is the seat of the one of the head of Sakya lineage. The other head of Sakya lineage lives in Seattle, US.
Rajpur Sakya Monastery is running a full fledge modern Hospital. They perform surgery and provide all modern care with half the cost. Many of the Woodstock staff, mussoorie, delivers their baby at this hospital. Doctors of Sakya Monastary Hospital are the top doctors of Dehradun. They perform surgery and care for the client.
Sakya is the first such monastery that is providing full fledge modern medical services for common people. It also has dentistry.
It was raining heavy in Dehradun but in Clement town there was not a single drop of rain. Weather works its own wonder.
There is a small zoo in Dehradun. Entry fee is nominal Rs. 20/person. Security guard search bags for any food and water which are not allowed within the zoo. Camera and cell phones are allowed. Half the zoo was closed. There was lone leopard, few parrots and few crocks.
Clement Town: Direction
If you are driving from Delhi, you will reach Clement Town first, ISBT, Dehradun, and Rajpur in that order. Dekyiling takes bypass and is on the other side of valley. At a sign board that says “Graphic Era” turn right if you are coming from Delhi and drive straight until you will see an Air force Selection Board Gate. Turn here right for Clement Town or Buddha Temple.
I went to see a Tibetan Entrepreneur who is employing about 30 young Tibetans. Some of them are dumb. They are paid well above average wages. Their product is exported to Denmark. Working space is ultra modern.
I took the public Bus from Clement Town to Tibetan Market, Dehradun. It is Rs. 18.00. There are no Tibetans traveling in Bus. From Tibetan Market I took an Auto Rickshaw to Dekyiling for Rs. 180.00 for one way.
He is a self made entrepreneur and his Glass beat factory is in Dekyiling, Sastradhara, Dehradun. It is behind the Dekyiling Representative office. Glass rods are imported from Italy. His products are made to order design. Intricate designs are curved or implanted or mould with gas flames. He employs furnace as well for curing glass finished.
He started this factory in Dekyling in 2012. In the beginning, he had difficulty in getting Tibetan young worker who are willing to get trained and work. Training takes about 3 months during which they are paid Rs. 4000 per month. After that they can earn Rs. 700 per day or more.
Beside his factory work, Kalden is the first registered animal rescue worker. So far, he and his team have vaccinated 925 dogs against rabies and many are sterilized. I made Rs. 1000 as my contribution for humane approach to animals. Note: He is the winner of the One Crore Rupees Project.
On my way back, I paid visit to Tibetan Market. There are about 200 shops. Each shop owner pays about Rs. 200.00 electricity bill. They own the shops and thus they don’t pay any rent. They sell Delhi-goods such as bags, attires, shirts, belt and umbrellas. I saw very few shoppers. I also saw many shops which are closed. It was 2pm. Business seems slow. Price of goods within the Tibetan Market is fixed.
Today is the birthday of Krisha of Indian mythology. His parent were imprisoned by the wicked king, Kansa. His parent gave birth to eight children. Eighth is the Krishna. It is holiday in Indian school and Clement Town Chenrezig is also on holiday after a brief celebration.
I went to Dehradun by local public bust (Rs. 16 upto GandaGhar) to buy remote control toy car for small monks of Nechung Monasery in Dharamsala-there are three of them. Last time, I bought them one remote car and one remote helicopter. Monks broke them in one week. In Dharamsala, toys are expensive and not good qualities either. Dehradun has better quality toys. Toy cars must have rechargeable batteries- they drain fast. Remote controller, however, is always AA batteries.
On Rajpur Road, just one block from GandaGhar, there is a café’ coffee and inside it there is an English Book Depot where only English books are sold. Café is AC. I had a coffee and a muffin which cost me Rs. 300.
I returned to Clement Town by public bus but I did not see any Tibetans riding it except me.
Today, I went along with D. Wangyal, one of my old school mate and a friend, to Dekyiling. We went by public bus to Tibetan Market and from there we went by yet another public bus to Dikeyling (Rs. 16 per head). I met a young Tibetan who is also travelling by bus with us. He paid our fare too- Lucky me.
Why I stress using public transit? First, Dehradun and other big cities, all over the world, face traffic congestion due to number of vehicles plying on the road. It does not matter how much we widen the road unless we control the number of vehicles on the road. One of the best method to alleviate traffic congestion adopted in Brazil and NYC is to use public transportation. In Leh, Ladak, it is the same story. People don’t use public Transport. Buying car or two wheeler is not the answer for traffic, in the long run.
In Dekeyling we met another old school mate, Passang Gokyi. He and Dondup used to be the best sportsmen of CST school, Mussoorie. Dondup still couches sports for National Academy, Mussoorie. For a time we were transported back in memory lane.
Wangyal worked for CTA for many years and later joined and become director of SOS Vocational Training for Tibetans, Pokhra, Nepal. They offer training in Carpentry, welding, motor mechanic, secretary (short hand), lathe machine, house electrical work, plumbing work, and radio mechanics. Today, there are no Tibetans joining it.
Mr. D. Wangyal (aka Bor Wangyal) is retired and living in Clement Town teaching English in Chenrezig school. He is an avid reader.
OYO: Chain- Hotel
It is difficult to find a good hotel in India through internet- every hotel claim something and reality is dismal. However OYO-chain of Hotels is very clean, cheap and easy to book through internet. Here is the link: http://www.oyorooms.com/. Within India, you pay in Indian Rupee. It is cheaper to book OYO through internet. Every city in India has many OYO hotel.
TCH hosted another Basketball match for school girls in remembrance of its previous director, Mr. Tsering Gyalpo DatsaTsang (alias Tsegya). He served TCH for 20 years. He deserves a tournament in his honor. He passed away in 2014.
TCH has few Tibetan DraNyan(Tibetan acoustic musical instrument; similar to guitar) which are broken; some have no Nylon strings; some have missing bridges and some have broken wooden tuning nuts which is tuned by friction rather than tuning pegs.
Nurse Tsering Yangzom, who worked for Delek Hospital, Dharamsala, passed away in Toronto, Canada, on 23rd Aug. She was battling a liver cancer. When I left for India on July 1, she seemed responding well to chemotherapy. She was a great lady with smiling face and a loving heart. Her friends, including D. Wangyal, missed her a lot.
I met a Tibetan individual who went to Tibet in 80’s as a tourist guide. He was arrested by the Chinese authorities thinking that he is another man who worked for the Tibetan Government in Exile-India. After several hours of interrogation he was released. He told me that there are various ranks of Chinese leader (Tibetan) but the highest rank was held by a young Ethnic Chinese guy in Tibet.
Today, Sol-Himal group is leaving back to France. In their honour, TCH arranged a small performance for them.
There was a cultural show at TCH. Tibetan dance was the first and next followed by Tawang dance followed by Indian dance. Kids sang various Bollywood songs for entrainment.
Asoka Edict in Charita, Dehradun, India
I went to Kalsi Gate, Charita, Dehradun, India, to see the Asoka Edit curved on a rock as big as a half the house. This is the first time that I saw such a historic stone. I heard there are two or three in present Pakistan. It is near about 200 meters outside the military Kalsi gate beyond which foreigners are not allowed to enter. Everyone, including foreigner can visit this spot since it is located outside the military gate.
Asoka Edicts are curved by the order of the King Asoka during his 28 years of rule. His edicts are written on either pillars or rocks. It is written in Prakit language, not in Sanskrit as purported. Sanskrit come to use after the Asoka Period.
I lived so many years in Mussoorie, but it is the first time that I visited this spot which is mere 2 hour journey from my school. It dates back to 268bc; in bc higher number is further away from 2019 ad.
I packed my luggage and prepared to leave for Dharamsala which is about 13 hours ride. I could break it at Chandigarh and a stay there for a night. It will cost me extra but journey is much less stressful.
Somehow, Volvo buses are very modern and comfortable. I booked Volvo and made up my mind. When travelling is often, travelling itself becomes a headache. Train is the best and safest in India but trains don’t get to places that one wants.
I left for Dharamsala. Booked ticket through my agent in Delhi- Nawang. It is a Volvo bus, AC with comfortable seat, which leaves from Dekyiling and picks up passenger from Clement town and Salakhul. Bus instead of going from Nahan, it goes via Punchkula. I left from Clement town to Dehradun Sabji Mandi at 7pm and reached Dharamsala by 8am next morning. Journey is almost 14 hours. It cost Rs. 1000/.
End of part Two.