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Mindful Training
༈ གླང་རེ་ཐང་པ་རྡོ་རྗེ་སེང་གེས་མཛད་པའི་བློ་སྦྱོང་ཚིག་བརྒྱད་མ་བཞུགས་སོ།
Eight Verses for Mind-Training Composed by Geshe Langri Thangpa Dorjee Singghe (1054-1123).
Audio: H.H. the Dalai Lama
1 སེམས་བསྐྱེད།
༈ བདག་ནི་སེམས་ཅན་ཐམས་ཅད་ལ།
May I consider sentient beings,
dearer than the Wish-Fulfilling Gem.
Best wishes in mind,
Forever hold them dear.

2 སྙིང་རྗེ།
Whenever whoever I am with
May I see myself least important.
And sincerely others in mind,
Hold them dearly highest.

3 བསམ་གཏན།
Always observe my behaviour.
Negative thoughts may arise,
[and]Hurt myself and others.
Confront and suppress it with force.

4 བཟོད་པ།
For unpleasant sentient being is,
Overwhelmed by bad-karma and suffering.
When stumble upon rare treasure,
Cherish and empathise.

5 སྦྱིན་པ།
Out of envy others may,
Insult, abuse and treat me unjustly.
May I accept [freewill] defeat and loss,
And offer victory to them.

6 ཤེས་རབ།
Whom I have helped,
With great expectation.
Did immense harm and unjust in return.
May I see him as my true teacher.

7 ཚུལ་ཁྲིམས།
In essence, directly or indirectly,
Offer total wellness to mothers.
Suffering and pain of mothers,
Inconspicuously take upon myself.

8 བརྩོན་འགྲུས།
All above be free from
eight compromises of Acquired Concept.
Recognizing all phenomena is illusory,
May I be free from bondage of disgusting Attachment.
*mother: sentient beings
Transliteration: karma
Channels and Chakras


The three Channels (Nadi) are right རོ་མ, left རྐྱང་མ and the central Channels རྩ་དབུ་མ་འམ་ཨབ་དྷུ་ཏི་འམ་ དྷུཏི།.

Left Channel is masculine; it is called Lalana, IDA, (Tibetan: Kyangma རྐྱང་མ), White and is water element. Moon element controls it. Left Channel is also called Moon in Guhyasamaja text.

The right channel is feminine and is called Pingala/Rasana , (Tib: Rooma; རོ་མ།), Red and is linked to fire. Sun element controls it. Right Channel is also called Sun in some text.

The Central channel (རྩ་དབུ་མ། དྷུཏི། ཨབ་དྷུ་ཏི) is the main channel. It is filled with void and is also called Ava-Dhuti, Sushumna, (Tib:Uma; meaning central) and is neutral. Upper Central Channel, navel and up, is controlled by Rahu (An imaginary planet or solar eclipse) element and lower Central Channel, navel and below, is controlled by element Kalagni.

All three channels align with an imaginary line that passes behind the Xiphisternum and very close to spinal column. All the three channels are very close to each other. Location of all the Chakras, mentioned below, such as Heart, Navel, forehead etc. are at level with these vital organs or energy spots but they are located on the Central Channel. For instance Forehead Chakra is not located on the forehead, instead it is on the central Channel which is behind the forehead.

All the three channels are visualized as “drinking straw”; hollow, straight, clear, flexible and transparent. Central Channel is smaller in diameter than the two channels on the sides. Size of the central Channel is half pea size or thickness of a whip-cord and size of the two channels on the sides are same as an arrow shaft.

There are two different layouts found in the texts -Kalachakra, ChakraSamvara, Guhyasamaja, Naropa. All the channels start and end at different physical locations.

Kalachakra layout: page 264 Kagyur, Derge Parma, Volume 102

All the three channels change their courses below the navel Chakra. Therefore, we have six channels, direction wise, with six names and more.

རྣམ་གསུམ་ལམ་འགྲོད་ཅེས་པ་ལ། ཟླ་བའི་ལམ་ལ་འགྲོད་པ་ནི་ཨིཌའོ། ཉི་མའི་ལམ་ལ་འགྲོད་པ་ནི་དམར་སེར་རོ། སྒྲ་གཅན་གྱི་ལམ་ལ་འགྲོད་པ་ནི་སུ་ཤུམྣའོ། ( Three travers are; moon’s path is called Ida; Sun’s path is called Pingala/red and yellow; Rahu’s path is Sushumana); Kagyur Kalachakra, Derge Parma, Volume 102; page 266;line 6.

Central Channel: Ava- Dhuti: Rahu (དབུ་མ།)
Central Channel starts at the Crown (top of the head) and ends at the tip of the Jewel. It is called Avadhuti. Outside color is blue but inside is reddish, like a flame of a butter lamp. Central Channel that runs from the Crown to Navel Chakra is controlled by Rahu {དབུ་མ་སྒྲ་ཅན་གྱི་རྩ།}, solar ellipse effect, energy. The Central channel curves to the right below the Navel and ends at the tip of the Jewel. The length below the navel Chakra is controlled by Planet Kalagni(དུས་མེ།); it is called by various names such as Sankhini and Sankhapala ( དུང་སྐྱོང།).

Left Channel: Lalana: Moon: Ida(ཨིཌ།) : (tib:Kyangma)
The left channel, Lalana, starts at the left nostril. It is white or moon color. It coils loosely around the central channel at all the Chakras or knots in clockwise according to Kalachakra text. It changes over to the right, below the navel, and ends in orifices of urination. It is now called Mesa (ལུག).

Right Channel: Rasana: Sun: (tib:Rooma)
The Right Channel, Rasana, also begins at the right nostril. It is Sun or red in color. It coils the central channel counter clockwise at every Chakras or Knots and is bit loose according to Kalachakra layout. It veers over to the left, below the navel, and ends at the anus. It is now called Pingala(དམར་སེ་ཅན་མ།).

Loop or Knot
Both right and left channels loops or coils around the central channel once at every Chakra(also called knot in Tibetan). This is in agreement with both Kalachakra and Guhyasamaja text. However at heart Chakra, according to Kalachakra text, there is two loops and according to Guhyasamaja there are three loops. Therefore at each Chakra there is two knots or loops and at heart six knots are formed if Guhyasamaja is followed. H.H. the Dalai Lama also follows six knots layout at the heart Chakra.

Loops or knots are tight, according to Kalachakra but bit loose in some other text at all the Chakras. Central Channel is always blocked at ground level or before Yoga begins. Purpose of Tumo or Vase Breathing Yoga is to open up Avadhuti .

There are five major Chakras and three minors, according to Guhyasamaja. Five major are at Crown, Throat, Heart, Navel and tip of the Jewel. Three minor are at midpoint between the eyebrows (Forehead), solar plexus (karma: in Guhyasamaja text, this Chakra is located midway between throat and heart. however, in other books including Advice On Dying, by Dalai Lama, it is at solar plexus ) and at the center of the Jewel(not tip!).

According to Kalachakra, Derge Parma, Vol 102, page 268, line 5, there are only 6 Chakras; they are, Crown, Forehead, throat, heart, Navel and the Jewel. I quote, །འཁོར་ལོ་དྲུག་གི་ངེས་པའོ། .

Tumo (གཏུམ་མོ་མེ་དྲོད། Warmth Yoga)
For the purpose of Tumo Yoga, only four Major Chakras are visualized- Crown, Throat, Heart and Navel.

Chakras location: ref: Kalachakra; Kagyur Derge Parma,page 268 or 139-advice on Dying..by Dalai Lama

All the Chakras have Mantra Syllables which sits in the center of each Chakra. Each syllable sits on a white moon disc or cushion. Size of the disc is half-cut small pea. Each Syllable is a size of a mustard seed. All the Syllables are adorned with half-moon, a drop (Bindu), and a Nada(Zigzag line) on their head in that order. All the Chakras are on the Central Channel itself, not on the forehead or the heart and so on.

First Chakra: Crown: 32/16 petals or branches
Crown Chakra is located just below the crown aperture or top of the head. It is also called Chakra of Bliss. It is a father essence and (at time of death) a white-drop emanates from it. It has 32 petals, multi-color and forms a triangular shape. A white syllable HAM(ཧྃ) sits inverted position on a white Moon disc adorned with a Crescent, a Bindu and a Nada at the center of the Chakra itself.

Second Chakra: Forehead: 6 (Guhyasamaja)/16(some other text) petals
Second is the forehead Chakra which is just at the level of forehead within the Central Channel. It has16 petals and is circular in shape. Note that forehead Chakra is not on the forehead.

Third Chakra: Throat
Third is the throat Chakra which is, at level, behind the Adams Apple within the Central Channel. It is also called Enjoyment Chakra. It has 16 red petals and forms a circular shape. Red syllable OM(ཨོྃ) sits on a white Moon disc, upright position, with Crescent, Bindu and Nada.

Fourth Chakra: Heart
Fourth is the heart Chakra which is at heart position (imaginary central line) on central Channel. It is also called Chakra of Phenomena. It has 8 black petals and forms a circular or bow shape. A white syllable HUM(ཧཱུྃ) sits on white moon disc in an inverted position with a crescent, a Bindu and a Nada at the center of the chakra; almost ready to melt- moist or ice.

Fifth Chakra: Navel
Fifth is the Navel Chakra which is, at level, behind the navel on the central Channel. It is also called Chakra of sustain bliss. It has 64 petals, red color and Triangular in shape. A red syllable AH (size of sesame seed) sits upright on a white moon / sun disc adorned with a Crescent, a Bindu and a Nada.

Sixth Chakra
Sixth has two branches: Anus Chakra has 32 petals and Chakra at the center of jewel / (tip of the sex organ) has 8 (Guhyasamaja)/16(some other text) petals.

Note: in GuhyaSamaJa and ChakraSamvara number of petals in the forehead and throat Chakra are reversed ie Throat has 16 instead of 32 petals.

Naropa Channels
For the purpose of Tumo(heat, warmth) Yoga. Channels layout is different. Tsongkhapa also mentions a slight different location for the Navel Chakra.

Ava-Dhuti, Central Channel, begins at the crown or top of the head (GuhyaSamaJa Tantra) and ends at the Navel. Rosana(Red, Right) and Lalana(white, left) channels begins at the nostril but they ends at the Navel level. Side two channels are two fingers width longer than the central channel and they arch upward, inward and their ends are plugged into the central channel at the Navel.

According to Lama TsongKhapa, above Navel Chakra is four-finger width below the Navel level.

For the Tumo purpose, only 4 Chakras are vital; Crown, Throat, Heart and Navel. Visualization of the Syllables are stressed very much by Lama TsongKhapa. Determining the location of syllable AH below the Navel area is critical to draw winds into the central channel.

Some Yogis visualize 5 Chakras. Above four and fifth Chakra is at the base of the sex organ(not the tip). From this spot “Thigley” is moved up to the Crown Chakra and from there it is moved back. This oscillation of Thigley is essential exercise. For this reason Central Channel opening or mouth at the crown Chakra is little bit curved downward so that “Thigley” may not escape by accident. In practice first visualize Channels and Chakras(རྩ) followed by “Thigley ཐིག་ལེ” which is followed by Wind རླུང or Vase-Breathing and finally end with Tumo གཏུམ་མོ་མེ་དྲོད། practice.

Wind within Avadhuti: Enter, Abide and absorb(ཞུགས་གནས་ཐིམ།]
First part of Tumo Yoga is to bring the wind into the central channel, AvaDhuti. Wind must, first, enter into the Avadhuti. Yoga called Vase breathing is practiced for this purpose.

If winds flow successfully in Avadhuti, both the nostrils will have balanced flow of air for a long time. When this happens, practice more as window of balanced flow from both the nostril is limited! Goal is to make wind abide in Avadhuti for a long time (108 counts: touch both knees and forehead with your fingers and count each cycle as one) and finally wind should dissolve or absorbed into Avadhuti. This is not for a faint heart! Wind can go haywire and make you sick too. A guide is essential.

Second part of the Tumo is to ignite the Tumo itself. Syllable AH, red in color, in the shape of an inverted exclamation mark “!” sits on a cushion of a white moon disc that lay flat on a 64 petals is visualized at the Navel Chakra. Syllable AH is adorned on its head with a crescent moon, a Bindu and a Nada in that order. Visualize that when the wind moves upward inside the Avadhuti, syllable AH catches flame and it elongates within the central channel and melts the inverted white HUM(ཧཱུྃ) at the Heart Chakra and flame conflagrates. If successful, Tumo will generate enough warmth or heat to dry up few cotton sheets in minus weather.
1 Kalachakra layout: page 264 Kagyur, Derge Parma, Volume 102
2 Advice on Dying..by H. H. the Dalai Lama
3 Oral transmission; Naropa yoga by H.H. the Dalai Lama (transcript)