History of Tibet 101
History of Tibet: 101
Tibet: After 1949
The term TIBET refers to whole of Tibet known as Cholka-Sum (U-
Tsang, Kham and Amdo). It includes Tibet Autonomous Region, Qinghai
Province, two Tibetan Autonomous Prefectures and one Tibetan Autonomous
County in Sichuan Province, one Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture and one
Tibetan Autonomous County in Gansu Province and one Tibetan Autonomous
Prefecture in Yunnan Province.
Tibet has total land mass of 2.5 million square kilometers, which includes U-
Tsang, Kham and Amdo provinces. "Tibet Autonomous Region", consisting of U
-Tsang and a small portion of Kham, has land mass of 1.2 million square
kilometers. Therefore the bulk of Tibet lies outside the "TAR" region.
Tibet, today, is a occupied nation without representation in the United
Our Neighbors are China in the east; Myanmar in the South; India (Sikkim
and Ladakh are included in India), Bhutan, Nepal to south-west; in the north are East Turkestan,
(today it is called Xingjiang; Once it is called Khotan- a Buddhist nation),
Taklamakan Desert, Tibetan Plateau and Gobi Desert.
Mountains and Rivers
Mount Everest: the highest Peak in the world
Himalaya and the Mount Everest (Google Earth location: 27°59'18.05"N 86°
55'31.41"E), Chomulungma in Tibetan, the highest peak in the world which
stands at 27,940 ft is to the west of Tibet. There is a route from Tibet to scale
Mount Everest. Most used route from Tibet is called North East Ridge Route.
Alternative route is from Nepal or south side of the Mt. Everest.
It is to the north of Tibet. Kunlun Mountain runs from East-West direction and
its chain of Mountains extends some 3,000 km.
Pamir, Hindu Kush, Karakoram Mountain ranges are to the west of Tibet.
It is either melting of the snow or the rain water in monsoon that feeds major
rivers in Asia which starts in Tibet. Without the snow, rivers will run dry when
The Major Rivers
Major rivers in Asia begins in Tibet. They are Yarlung Tsangpo (Brahmaputra in India), Machu (Yellow River in China), Drichu (Yangtse in China), Senge Khabab (Indus in India), Phungchu (Arun in India), Gyalmo Ngulchu (Salween in Burma) and Zachu (Mekong in Thailand, Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos). These rivers support more than 100 millions of people in India, China, Burma, Laos, Thailand, Pakistan Vietnam and Cambodia. Mekong River alone supports 1,100 different freshwater species. Ecosystem provided by these rivers sustains habitats and biodiversity that is essential for freshwater livestocks.
Tibet is about 4,000 meters or 13,000 feet above sea level. This means Tibet
has less oxygen to breathe. Tourist are prone to Altitude Sickness.
Since 1959 Tibet has been under Chinese Communist rule. Today, Tibet is divided into
the following administrative units: a) Tibet Autonomous Region, b) Qinghai
Province, c) Tianzu Tibetan Autonomous County and Gannan Tibetan
Autonomous Prefecture in Gansu Province, d) Aba Tibetan-Qiang Autonomous
Prefecture, Ganzi Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture and Mili Tibetan Autonomous
County in Sichuan Province, e) Dechen Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture in
The total Tibetan population in Tibet is 6 million. Of them, 2.09 million live in the
"TAR" and the rest live in the Tibetan areas outside the "TAR".
Wildlife and animals
Wild Yak: འབྲོང་།
The Wild Yak is called Dong. It is the ancestor of the domestic yak that Tibetans have relied upon for centuries. Yaks belong to the Bovini
tribe, which also includes bisons, buffaloes, and cattle. Though there are over 12 million domestic yaks in the Central
Asian highlands, fewer than 10,000 Wild yaks survived. They are bigger and much stronger(some believe they are 10
times stronger) than domestic Yaks. Wild Yaks can withstand cold upto -40C and high winds. They have fewer sweat
glands. Wild Yaks can be found in herds of 30 or even 200. Often, on Alpine meadow, Wild Yaks and domestic female
Yaks mingle. Male Wild Yaks when mate with domestic female Yak, first generation is called Zongkha. They are hard to
tame. The Wild Yak is endemic to the Tibetan Plateau. The Wild Yak could be found almost everywhere in Tibet prior to
1949. Today, the Wild Yak
is mostly confined to the remote northwestern part of the Tibetan Plateau, including North and Northwest Tibet and the
southern fringes of the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. The highest concentration of Wild yaks is found within the
284,000 square-kilometer Chang Tang Nature Reserve. A few Wild yaks seasonally migrate into Ladakh and, possibly,
into northern Nepal.
Yak : གཡག
Yaks are native to high altitude (thin oxygen) and cold climate like Tibet. Yak
dies in worm climate due to heat exhaustion(some report that above 15c). Yak
is our supply of meat, hide, fur, milk, butter, cheese, transportation, plough and
dried droppings for fuel- dropping smell like grass. Female Yaks are called Dri
and they are smaller in size. Yak should be the symbol of Tibet on our national
flag but not. Poor Yaks are “beast of burden”.
Tibetan Mastiff : འབྲོག་ཁྱི།
Tibetan Mastiff: Drog Khyi
Tibetan Mastiff are Drog Khyi and Tsang Khyi. Drog Khyi means Dogs owned by Nomads. Tsang Khyi are those
dogs that came from region called Tsang in Tibet. Drog Khyi is considered the most ancient breeds of dogs. Tibetan Mastiff are strongest and the bravest of all the dogs in world. Many are quite huge. Two or three wolfs are no threat to them. They can fatally wound leopard or
bear. They are natural shepherd dog. When unleashed they protects their owner’s property such as tent and live stocks with its life. It can sense intruders with its powerful nose. Most surprise of all
is that if it is fatally wounded while fighting an intruder such as wolf or bear it will not return home but die a lonely death far
away from its owner. Tibetan Mastiff can survive on barley flour and butter-milk if meat is not available. They are
therefore best friend of Tibetan nomads.
Bengal Tiger(Panthera tigris tigris) - སྟག
Tigers were once widespread throughout the Asian continent. Over the last 70 years, however, three tiger subspecies,
the Caspian Tiger, the Javan Tiger, and the Bali Tiger, have been driven to extinction. Now only five subspecies of tigers
remain, and all of these are endangered. The five remaining sub-species are the Sumatran Tiger, the Siberian Tiger, the
Indo-Chinese Tiger, the South China Tiger, and the Bengal Tiger, also known as the Indian Tiger. The South China Tiger
previously ranged as far west as East Tibet, but, today, the only tiger sub-species found in Tibet is the Bengal Tiger. The
Bengal Tiger inhabits grassland, mangrove swamps, and a wide variety of forest types, including the cold, high-altitude,
coniferous forests of the eastern Himalaya Mountains. Most Bengal tigers are found in India, but there are also Bengal
tigers in Nepal, Bangladesh, Burma (Myanmar), South and Southeast Tibet, and Northwest Yunnan Province in China.
The areas of South and Southeastern Tibet where the
Bengal Tiger occurs include the Yarlung Tsangpo River valley and the Namcha Barwa region. Tigers require adequate
cover, access to a sufficiently sized population of large prey, and a constant water supply.
Clouded Leopard (Neofelis (or Pardofelis) nebulosa) - གཟིགས།
The Clouded Leopard has pale yellow to brown fur, with large irregular shaped markings on its body. Each marking is dark
brown or black around the edge and lighter in the middle. It is this cloud-like pattern that gives the cat its name. The
Clouded Leopard’s forehead and legs are spotted. The base of the Leopard’s tail is spotted too, but the remainder of the
Leopard’s tail is banded. The Clouded Leopard is found in Tibet, China, Taiwan, Nepal, Bhutan, India, Myanmar (Burma),
Laos, Vietnam, Thailand, Malaysia, and Indonesia (Sumatra and Kalimantan).
Eurasian Lynx(Lynx or Felis) - གཡི།
The Eurasian, or Siberian, Lynx is the largest of the lynxes. The Eurasian Lynx primarily inhabits cold coniferous forests.
However, the Lynx also lives in deserts and high mountains. The Eurasian Lynx is found throughout Central Asia and
across the entire Tibetan Plateau.
Snow leopard - གསའ།
Tibetan Snow leopard or Uncia Uncia is listed as endangered species. Sightings of these elusive animals are rare treat.
The Snow Leopard is widely dispersed throughout the mountain ranges on and around the Tibetan Plateau, as well as on
the Tian Shan Altar, Kunlun, and other mountains of Xinjiang.
The Giant Panda
Giant Panda is an endangered species. Panda eats only bamboo leaves, stems
and shoots. The Giant Panda is confined to portions of six mountain ranges in
Tibet and China, including the Qinling, Min, Qionglai, Daxiangling,
Xiaoxiangling, and Liang Mountains. These mountain ranges are found in the
Amdo and Kham regions of Tibet (the Gansu and Sichuan provinces of China)
and the Chinese province of Shaanxi. The highest concentration of Giant
pandas occurs in eastern Tibet (in Sichuan Province).
The Red Panda is also known as the Lesser Panda, the Common Panda, the
Bright Panda, the Red Cat Bear, and the Fire Fox. Though the Giant Panda is
the Red Panda’s closest relative, the Red Panda actually looks more like a
raccoon. The Panda occurs within the moderate climate zones of southern and
southeastern Tibet, particularly in the counties of Dechen, Gyalthang, and
Balung in Dechen Prefecture.
Tibetan fox has a unique face unlike other foxes. This fox is native only to Tibet. It’s main food is another small mammal called Pika or Abra in Tibetan. Pica is not a rodent. Chinese Authorities carried out controversial poisoning of Pikas. This in turn poisons birds and other mammals in the food chain and it’s direct impact is on Tibetan Fox
Dhole(Cuon Alpinus) ཕ་ར།
The Dhole is also known as the Asiatic or Indian Wild Dog, the Red Dog, and the Whistling Hunter. The Dhole differs from
other members of the Canidae, or dog, family in that it has a thicker muzzle, one less molar tooth on each side of its
lower jaw, and extra teats. It is found in Tibet and rest of Asia too.
Tibetan Wild Ass (Equus kiang) རྐྱང་།
Tibetan Wild Ass
The Tibetan Wild Ass, or Kiang, was until recently considered to be a subspecies of Equus hemionus, the Kulan or
Asiatic Wild Ass. Though the Kiang is very similar to the Kulan, it is now recognized as a distinct species, Equus kiang.
The Kiang has a reddish brown coat that darkens in color during the winter months. The Kiang is most abundant in alpine
meadows and alpine steppes, but also occurs in more arid habitats. The Kiang is only found
on the Tibetan Plateau and the area just west of the Plateau. The Kiang’s habitat range includes Tibet and bordering
areas of China, Pakistan, and India, including Ladakh and Sikkim. The Kiang’s population has become increasingly
fragmented. Today, the Kiang is most densely distributed in protected areas and areas under army jurisdiction, including
the Arjin Shan, Kalamaili Mountain, Chang Tang, and Chomo Langma (Qomolangma) Nature Reserves.
Musk Deer(Moschus spp): གླ་བ།
There are probably about five species of Musk deer. Four of these species, including the Forest or Dwarf Musk Deer
(Moschus berezovskii), the Black or Dusky Musk Deer (M. fuscus), the Alpine Musk Deer (M. sifanicus or M.
chrysogasterleucogaster), and the Himalayan Musk Deer (M. chrysogaster crysogaster), found in Tibet. It's hind legs are longer than the forelimbs.
The Forest Musk Deer occurs in Tibet, the Chinese provinces of Sichuan, Yunnan, Qinghai, Gansu, Shanxi, Shaanxi,
Ningxia, Guizhou, Anhui, Hubei, Hunan, and Guangxi, Laos, and northeastern Vietnam. The Forest Musk
Deer inhabits high mountains and mixed coniferous and broadleaf forests. The Black Musk Deer is found in southeastern
Tibet, western Yunnan province in China, Nepal’s Everest region, Assam and Sikkim in India, Bhutan, and Burma
(Myanmar). Mountainous areas of Tibet and China where the Black Musk Deer has been spotted include the counties of
Dzayul (Chayu), Metog (Motuo), Menling (Milin), and Bijang, and the Gaoligong Nature Reserve. The Alpine Musk Deer is
endemic to the Tibetan Plateau, occurring in Tibet, the Chinese provinces of Qinghai, western Sichuan, Yunnan, Ningxia,
and Xingjiang, and India. The Alpine Musk Deer prefers high mountains and plateau, meadows, shrub, and coniferous
forest. The Himalayan Musk Deer is confined to the Himalayas, occurring in Tibet, Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, Nepal,
and Bhutan. Alpine Musk deer are usually distributed in the western Himalayas, while Himalayan Musk deer are
distributed in the eastern Himalayas. The Indian states in which Alpine and/or Himalayan Musk deer are found include
Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Sikkim, and Arunachal Pradesh.
Tibetan White-lipped Deer(Cervus Albirostris): ཤྭ་བ་མཆུ་དཀར།
Tibetan White-Lipped Deer
The White-lipped Deer is also known as Thorold’s Deer, the Grass or Rock Deer, the Yellow Deer, and the White-faced
Maral. The White-lipped Deer is a large and strong deer. The White-lipped Deer is endemic to the Tibetan
Plateau. The Deer occurs in low densities within its habitat range, which, though extensive, has become highly
fragmented. The White-lipped Deer is currently found in Tibet, east of Lhasa into western Kham (Sichuan Province), and
in eastern Amdo (the eastern two-thirds of Qinghai Province into Gansu Province). Though the Deer is spread over a
large area, it occurs at low densities and its populations are highly fragmented.
Tibetan Red Deer(Cervus elaphus wallichi) ཤྭ་དམར།
Tibetan Red Deer
The Tibetan Red Deer, or Shou, is a sub-species of the Red Deer. The Red Deer has a reddish-brown coat for most of
the year; in the winter, though, its coat turns brownish-grey. The Deer has a short, beige tail, and a creamy patch on its
rump. The Tibetan Red Deer are found in Tibet and possibly in Bhutan too.
Blue Sheep(Pseudois Nayaur) གནའ།
The Blue Sheep, or Bharal, is prevalent to the Tibetan Plateau. According to noted biologist George Schaller, Blue sheep
are best described as “goats with sheep-like traits.” Both male and female Blue sheep have ridged horns.
Black-necked Crane (Grus nigricollis) ཁྲུང་ཁྲུང་དཀར་མོ།
It is protect species. It is also one of the 15 different Crane species of the world. Tibetan Plateau is home to such a tall
and graceful bird. They dance near river or lakes. Before 1959, Lhasa was frequent stopover for this majestic bird. Sixth
Dalai lama, after he quite monk vow, composed a song “white Crane”.
Golden Snub-Nosed Monkey(Pygathrix (or Rhinopithecus) roxellana) ཁམས་སྤྲེལ་སྤུ་སེར།
Golden Snub-Nosed Monkey
The Golden, or Sichuan, Snub-nosed Monkey is indigenous to Tibet. Like the Giant Panda, very few of these animals
exist in the wild. The Golden Snub-nosed Monkey has a small upturned snub nose with exposed nostrils, and lappets at
the sides of its mouth. The Golden Snub-nosed Monkey is most often found in the same places as the Giant Panda.
However, the Monkey is better adapted to colder climates and higher altitudes than the Panda, and as a result, the
Golden Snub-nosed Monkey’s habitat extends far beyond that of the Giant Panda. The Monkey’s population is mainly
found on the southeastern edge of the Tibetan Plateau, in China’s Sichuan, Yunnan, Gansu, Shaanxi, and Hubei
provinces, and in Kham, in the Gyalmo Tsawa Rong region, Chugar, and in the dense forest of the Ngawa Dzong
Yunnan Snub-Nosed Monkey (Pygathrix (or Rhinopithecus) bieti (or roxellana bieti) ཡུ་ནན་སྣ་གྱེན་སྤྲེའུ།
Yunnan Snub-Nosed Monkey
The Yunnan Snub-nosed Monkey is an extremely rare primate found only in Tibet and China. Alternative names for the
Monkey include the Snow Monkey, Biet’s Snub-nosed Monkey, the Black Snub-nosed Monkey, the Black Snub-nosed
Langur, and the Yellow-haired Dechen Monkey. The Yunnan Snub-nosed Monkey lives at higher altitudes than any other
non-human primate. The French scientist Milne-Edwards first identified the Yunnan Snub-nosed Monkey in 1897.
Recent surveys suggest that there are currently about 13 isolated sub-populations of the Yunnan Snub-nosed Monkey.
These populations are located in the Yunling (“Cloudy”) Mountains in southeastern Tibet (Kham) and the northwest of
China’s Yunnan Province, between the Zachu (Lancang) and Drichu (Jinsha) Rivers (the headwaters of the Mekong and
Yangtze Rivers, respectively). The Yunnan Snub-nosed Monkey occurs in the Tibetan counties of Dechen (Deqin),
Gyalthang (Zhongdian), and Balung (Weixi), in Dechen Prefecture, and Markham (Mangkang) in Chamdo Prefecture. The
Monkey occurs in the Chinese counties of Lijiang, Jianchuan, and Lanping. About half of the Yunnan Snub-nosed
Monkey’s population is found in nature reserves, including the 1,901 square-kilometer Pema (Baima) Xue Shan (“Snow
Mountain”) Nature Reserve.
Tibetan Macaque (Macaca thibetana) སྤྲེལ།
The Tibetan Macaque, also known as Pere David’s Macaque or the Short-tailed or Stump-tailed Tibetan Macaque, is the
largest species of macaque in the world. The Tibetan Macaque is found in Tibet and China,
its population concentrated in Eastern Tibet and China’s Sichuan province. Mountains popular with tourists in China
where the Macaque can be found include Emei Shan, in Sichuan Province, and Jiuhua Shan and Huang (“Yellow”) Shan,
in Anhui Province.
Goral(Naemorhedus spp) རྒྱ་རྒོ་ར།
The Goral is the smallest member of the Rupicaprini tribe of goat antelopes, which also includes the Serow, the North
American mountain goat, and the European chamois. There are three Goral species: Naemorhedus baileyi, the Red
Goral; Naemorhedus goral, the Himalayan Goral; and Naemorhedus caudatus, the Long-tailed or Chinese Goral. At least
two of the three Goral species occur in Tibet. Unlike the Serow, which has a flat face, the Goral has a curved face, with
a separate nasal bone and eyes set close together.
The Red Goral principally occurs in southeast Tibet. The Dongqiu Nature Reserve was established in Nyingtri specifically
for the animal’s preservation. The Red Goral is also found in northern Burma (Myanmar), Assam State in India, and
Yunnan province in China. There is a subspecies of the Red Goral called the Tibetan Red Goral (Naemorhedus baileyi
baileyi). The Himalayan Goral occurs in the Himalaya Mountains, in northern
Pakistan, northern India, southern Tibet, Nepal, and Bhutan. The Long-tailed Goral is found in Far Eastern Russia, China,
Korea, eastern Burma (Myanmar), Laos, northwestern Thailand, and possibly in northeastern India (Nagaland and
Himalaya Tahr(Hemitragus jemlahicus) ར་རྒོད།
Tahrs are related to wild goats. The Himalayan Tahr, one of the three species of tahrs, is native to the southern range of
the Himalayan Mountains. The Himalayan Tahr has a thick, shaggy, dual-layered coat. In the winter, this coat keeps the
Tahr warm. Males additionally grow a long mane around their neck and shoulders that extends down to their forelegs in
the winter. The Himalayan Tahr is confined to the southern range of the Himalayan Mountains and occurs in northern
India, Nepal, Bhutan, and southern Tibet.
Mainland Serow (Capricornis (or Nemorhaedus) sumatraensis) རྒྱ་ར།
The Mainland, or Asiatic, Serow is one of the three species of serows. Serows are the most generalized representatives
of the bovid subfamily of goat antelopes called Caprinae, all of which probably evolved from a serow-like ancestor. The
Mainland Serow’s coarse, somewhat long fur is coloured reddish chestnut to black. Most Mainland serows also have a
white or pale yellow neck patch and several lighter-coloured patches on
their limbs. The Mainland Serow has a short beard, and a thick mane that extends down the length of its back from the
back of its neck to its tail.
The Mainland Serow inhabits forests and wooded gorges in the mountains, at elevations from 2,000 to 3,330 metres
(6,000 to 10,000 feet), as well as grassland and shrubland, at lower altitudes. The Serow’s habitat range extends north
from the Himalayas of Nepal to China’s Gansu and Anhui provinces, and across South East Asia, as far south as the
Malay Peninsula and Sumatra.
Takin (Budorcas taxicolor) བ་མེན།
The hefty Takin, also known as the Cattle Chamois or the Gnu Goat, belongs to the genus Budorcas, which means
“oxlike gazelle” in Greek. The closest cousin of the Takin is the Musk Ox. All four of the Takin’s recognized sub-species
occur in Tibet. The Takin sub-species are B. t. bedfordi, the Shensi or Golden Takin (Pusser Bamen, in Tibetan), B. t.
taxicolor, the Mishmi Takin (Himalaya Bamen), B. t. tibetana, the Sichuan Takin (Gyalmo Tsawa Rong gi Bamen), and B.
t. whitei, the Bhutan Takin (Druk gi Bamen).
The Takin’s habitat range includes the Himalayas and mountain ranges in west and northwest China. The Golden Takin
occurs in the Qin Lin (Qinling) Mountains in China’s Shaanxi and Gansu Provinces. The Sichuan Takin is found in China’s
Sichuan and Gansu Provinces, including the Qionglai Mountains in Sichuan, and in Northeast Tibet, or Amdo. In
Northeast Tibet, the Sichuan Takin is found in the deep valleys of Ngawa and Katse and the eastern part of Drukchu. The
Mishmi Takin occurs in northern Burma (Myanmar), Bhutan, India’s Assam and
Sikkim States, and in Southeast Tibet (or the northern region of China’s Yunnan Province). The Mishmi Takin’s range in
Tibet includes the Metok and Gyalthang regions, as well as parts of Drukchu and Ngawa. The Bhutan Takin is found in
India, Bhutan, and the Lhoka border region between Tibet and Bhutan.
Tibetan Antelope (Pantholops hodgsoni) གརྩོད།
The Tibetan Antelope is also known as the Chiru. Morphological characteristics and DNA analysis reveal that the Tibetan Antelope is most closely related to the wild goats and sheep of the subfamily Caprinae. The Antelope’s short, dense, woolly hair is fawn-coloured, and the Antelope has black markings on its face and legs. Male Tibetan antelope have long,
slender, ridged black horns that curve slightly backwards, which they use to defend their harems against rivals during the
rut. Horns measure 50 to 60 centimeters (19 to 23 inches) long.
The Tibetan Antelope primarily inhabits the Tibetan Plateau (although about 200 migrate to Ladakh during the summer
months). The great herds of 15,000 antelope or more that Western explorers reported a century ago are now gone, but
herds of 1,000 or more can still be seen. The Antelope’s habitat range has contracted in Central and eastern Tibet. The
largest Tibetan antelope populations survive in the Chang Tang region of northwestern Tibet, in southern Xinjiang, and in
Amdo in northeastern Tibet. There are a number of both migratory and resident
populations of antelope in these regions. The Tibetan Antelope’s habitat range overlaps with the Chang Tang, Arjin Shan,
Kekexili, and the Sanjiangyuan (“Source of Three Rivers”) Nature Reserves.
Today, it is under threat due to high market value offered for their wool. Their wool is woven into shawl called Shahtoosh.
Tibetan Argali(Ovis ammon hodgsoni) གཉན།
The Argali, or the Asian Wild Sheep, is the largest species of wild sheep in the world. The Tibetan Argali is one of the
eight recognized subspecies of the Argali. The Tibetan Argali has light grayish brown upper parts that are darker along the
back, a white belly, and a white rump patch.
The Tibetan Argali is found throughout the Tibetan Plateau, including regions of Nepal and Sikkim and Ladakh in
India that are close to the Tibetan border. In the winter, the Argali tends to migrate to lower elevations or to less snowy
Tibetan Gazelle(Procapra picticaudata): རྒོ་བ།
The Tibetan Gazelle is endemic to the Tibetan Plateau. The Gazelle has a sandy-brown to greyish-brown coat that is
greyer in the summer than in the winter. The fronts of the Tibetan Gazelle’s slender legs are light grey. Most Tibetan
gazelles occur in Tibet, but small numbers may also be found in Ladakh and Northern Sikkim. Within Tibet, the Gazelle
population in concentrated in the Chang Tang in northern Tibet.
Tibetan Blue Bear དོམ།
Tibetan Blue Bear
Tibetan Blue Bear is found only in Tibet.
Tibetan Brown Bear དོམ།
Tibetan Brown Bear
The Tibetan Brown Bear is a subspecies of the Brown Bear. The Tibetan Brown Bear has shaggy, dark brown to black fur, with a cream to cinnamon face, and a white collar that broadens from the shoulders to the chest. The Tibetan Brown Bear’s small ears are covered with long black fur. The Brown Bear’s sense of smell is much more acute than its hearing and sight. The Tibetan Brown Bear is found only on the Tibetan Plateau.
Ref: Wild life: March 2005, Environment and Development Desk, DIIR, CTA
Agriculture and animal husbandry are the mainstay of economy.
YarTsa GunBu(Tib:Summer Grass-Winter Insect): Cash Crop for rural
It is a caterpillar infested with a typical fungus (Cordyceps Sinensis). This
fungus kills the caterpillar and plant grows out of its head. About 50,000 kg are
collected each season and 225 Million US. It cost about 10,000 Yuan per kg.
Chinese athletes use them and broke many world records.
Mineral deposits worth $127 billion dollars are discovered. So far 126 minerals
and about 2000 sites are identified. Bulk of the mining is iron ore, Chromium,
Copper, Zinc, Lithium, Uranium, Salt and Gold. Tibet Railway cut the cost of
mining industry by 20 percent, Tibet Mining Co. Ltd acknowledged.
Han people can stay either in Tibet or go back to China,wherever they came from, if Tibet’s
environment becomes a health problem. Since Hans in Tibet are not local, they do not actively participate in environment issues such as mining. How about local Tibetans
who lived there for generations and cannot go anywhere else in China? Tibetan
and Hans are two different culture, life style and language. Who will raise environment issue for the native Tibetans? If Tibetans take up the issue with Chinese Communist Regime (CR), they will prosecute them as a subversive activity. Mining industries in Tibet, therefore, face no opposition from local people-Tibetans.
Before 1959 each family in Tibet send, at least, one boy to monasteries where they learn read and write Tibetan. There are at least one monasteries in every village. Therefore literacy rate is quite high. Tibetan language is completely different for Mandarin. Our mother tongue is Tibetan.
Today, however, under the Chinese rule Tibetans face dilemma. Many Tibetan families avoid school because Tibetan language is not part of the regular school curriculum instead it is After-School program for which parents have to pay extra. Medium of instruction in schools in Tibet from Kindergarten onward is in Mandarin. Without knowledge of Tibetan language even daily Buddhist Prayer is not possible to teach.
Literacy rate of Tibetans living in Tibet, today, is low compared to 1959. Chinese literacy report within TAR is misleading as it includes Han population (70 percent). However independent organization show that literacy rate in TAR among ethnic Tibetan is 13 percent for women and 38 percent for men. Ref: www.Rokpa.org
Comparatively literacy rate of Tibetans living in exile ie India, Nepal, and Bhutan is over 82.4 percent according to Tibetan Demographic Survey, IDP, 2009, Planning Commission, CTA, Dharamsala, India.
Tibet: Before 1949
Tibet had a Federal Government under the administration of H.H. the Dalai
Lama. Law and order was not an issue due to sparse population and docile
people. Strangers were always an honoured guest.
Tibetan Buddhism was the state religion of Tibet, however there were Muslims
and Christians too. Tibet follows Buddhism which came from India, especially
from Nalanda University. KamalakShila, ShantiRakShita, PadmaSamBhawa
were some of the most celebrated scholars who came and lived in Tibet.
Tibetans speak Tibetan Language. Tibetan scripts consist of 30 alphabets and 5
vowels. Tibetan script was derived from Devnagiri or Nagri. See below for more
There were 3 Provinces U-Tsang, Kham and Amdo. Total population was about
Barley, Ney in Tibetan, is grown widely. Barley is made into TsamPa. It is
Tibetan version of morning Cereal- We invented the breakfast cereal. Just add tea, butter, cheese
and walla! you have a sumptuous breakfast in a jiffy.
Tsampa: How it is made
Barley is threshed and winnowed for kernel. It is soaked in water. It is then
popped in a huge skillet pan on open air fire with or without “hot” sand. It is then
milled just like flour. Now it is ready to eat without baking! Tibet was sparsely populated and travelers would not see any humans for many days. Tsampa was a life saver. Just boil a cup of tea, if that is too much work, mix Tsampa with enough water and make a Pak for the lunch or dinner. Pak requires consistency of liquid and Tampa. Handful of Pak must fall apart however when it is rolled into a fist it must stick together. It should not be like a dough- too much liquid. Quickest way to mix Pak is to use a Pak Pouch to avoid spill over.
Another delicacy is Chang. Chang is home brewed beer made from Barley.
Tibetan New Year celebration without boiled Chang(Egg nog), first thing in the
morning is unlikely.
Tartary Buckwheat or Golden Buckwheat(tib:DroVue)
It is sometimes called "king of cereals" and is gluten free and high in
Rutin (It is 5 times more than common Buckwheat). Many scientist believe that
Golden buckwheat harvest began in central Tibet. Tibetan eat them without fully
appreciating its health benefits.
Salt & Minerals
Himalaya Salt can reduce stomach acid. Beside taste it has therapeutic value
too. Tibet did not exploit nature. River water, forest, mountains are in pristine
state. Air is so clear, without pollution, that mountains looks so near but actually
are really far off.
As of today, we know there were Shang Shung, Yarlung and Guge kingdoms that made up Tibet(U' Tsang, Kham and Amdo). However, Tibetan history, usually, start with onset of Buddhism (Yarlung) but that is half the story. Tibetans are the people of Shang Shung.
Shang Shung Kingdom
Shang Shung civilization is as old as iron age (1200bc) according to new findings. It predates Tibetan Buddhist history which began in late 50 ad. Our ancestors were Bon. They flourished within the boundaries of north of Lhasa ie Nagchu (Nagqu in Chinese) in the south, Kunlun Mountains in the north, Kunlan range near Pakistan border in the west and Nagchu in the east. Today, major area of this ancient civilization comes under present ChangThan or Tibetan Plateau. Once this bleak land was full of life according to recent Archeological discovery.
A big head Tiger fossil was discovered in 2010 which was 4 million year old. Here is a news clip report from discovery.com which reads, “ Dr. Tseng and his colleagues were excavating a rocky region of badlands in the Tibetan plateau in 2010 when they uncovered a fossil skull and one other bone that seemed to belong to a big cat.”
In 2007 Rhino fossil was discovered from Tibetan Plateau which belonged to ice-age (2.6 million – 12,000 years). Shang Shung was more desolate today than it was in the past. If more excavation are allowed more information may be uncovered about this lost Shang Shung civilization- our ancestors.
Here are few facts. Indus Valley Civilization (Bronze Age: 3500bc - 1500bc) spreads over huge area between present Pakistan, India. Shang Shung area was never explored. The last ice or glacial age, during which most of our planet was covered in thick glacier, was about 12,000 years ago. Plateau of Tibet may be the few pockets of land that did not experienced the last ice-age.
Tibetan started keeping record during the reign of Mutig Tsenpo who ruled over Tsang in 798ad. Ref: Ladak Chronicles by A.H. Francke. Muni Tsenpo ruled Yarlung(Lhasa) and his half-brother Mutig Tsenpo ruled Tsang. Therefore there was no record of Shang Shung appeared in Tibetan(Post Bon).
Bon followers or Bonpo believes that Shang Shung had 18 kings. Bon religion was founded by Sherab Miwo some 18,000(2013 – 18,000 = 15987bc) years ago.
Tibetans still perform rituals such as hoisting religious flag and burning junipers which is inherited from Bon tradition which has no connection with the Buddhism.
Since current Bon and Buddhism teachings are similar, which came first? To answer this,
we must look at the original Bon which is completely different from current Bon. Otherwise, we have to conclude that Buddha copied his philosophy from Bon founder Shenrab who came to Shang Shung in 15,9897BC. However Buddha come into this world in 624bc.
Kings of Shang Shung
Tibetans would point to Yarlung kingdom as the beginning of Tibetan
history. It was in 50ad when first King Nyatri Tsenpo was established. He was followed by 42 Kings. The last King Lang Darma was assassinated in 842 AD.
Origin of King of Tibet
There is a legend that Nyatri Tsenpo was one of 100 brothers of the Kurawa, epic story of Hindu Mahabharata. This is not likely as Mahabharata epic battle took place about 3137bc to 1000bc and war lasted for only 18 days. This date was in concert with iron-age which began about 3000bc (without iron weapons like sword, mace and shield cannot be made strong). Sir Cunningham wonders if King of Tibet, Ladakh and Nepal were descendant of Lichhavis and offshoot of King of Nepal family. The Lichhhavi clans were from Viasali and Vriji area that were driven out by Hindu king who persecuted Buddhist soon after the PariNirvana of the Sakya Muni Buddha.
Three kings stood out among them all. Songtsen Gampo(33rd), Trisong Detsen
(38th) and Tri Ralpachen(41st) steered Tibet into new direction and made Tibet
Tibet was at its pinnacle power when thirty third King Songtsen Gampo united whole of Tibet. Lesser neighbouring kings offered their daughters for marriages.
Nepal king offered Bhrikuti Devi and Wen Cheng from China. Thumi Sambhota,
after returning from India, invented Tibetan script and became minister. Many believe that Thume Sambhota was a fictional figure!
King Trisong Detsen, the thirty eighth, invited ShantaRakshita and Guru
Padmasambhawa from India to teach Buddhism in Tibet. Samye, the first
Buddhist monastery of Tibet, was replica of Odantapuri Monastery in Bihar
Sharif, Bihar, India. Buddhist scriptures or Canons called Kagur and Tengur which runs into hundreds of volumes were translated from Sankskrit to newly created Tibetan script. Kagurs are word directly spoken by the Sakya Muni Buddha. As per DergeParma, a famous Printing House in Tibet, there are 103 Volumes of Kagur. Tengyur is a compilation of treatises and commentaries written by various thinkers of the past Indian Buddhist. Tengyur has about 224 volumes. These original works in Sanskrit are now lost. Completer work is now only in Tibetan text. Thanks to digital age they are now, Tibetan versions, in digital too. .
King Ralpachen, the forty first, built many temples and carried out the works of
translations for posterities.
Fifth Dalai Lama assumed spiritual and temporal power in 1642 AD and
established “Gaden Phodrang” administration. He also built the White part of
the Potala palace. Under his leadership Tibet become one. Shang Shung, Yarlung(Lhasa) and Guge were, once again, brought under Lhasa's control. Current Dalai Lama, Tenzin Gyatso, is the 14th.
གཉའ་ཁྲི་བཙན་པོ། Nyatri Tsenpo (50AD); According to Cunningham and Hiuen Tsang's travel record.
02 མུ་ཁྲི་བཙན་པོ། Mutri Tsenpo 68AD
03 དིང་ཁྲི་བཙན་པོ། Dingtri Tsenpo 86AD
04 སོ་ཁྲི་བཙན་པོ། Sotri Tsenpo 104
05 མེར་ཁྲི་བཙན་པོ། Mertri Tsenpo 124
06 གདགས་ཁྲི་བཙན་པོ། Daktri Tsenpo 142
07 སྲིབ་ཁྲི་བཙན་པོ། Sibtri Tsenpo 142
08 གྲི་གུམ་བཙན་པོ། Drigum Tsenpo 159
09 པུ་ལྡེ་གུང་རྒྱལ། (བྱ་ཁྲི་བཙན་པོའང་།) PuDae Gungyal/Jatri Tsenpo 178
10 ཨེ་ཤོ་ལེགས། Esho Lek 194
11 དེ་ཤོ་ལེགས། Desho Lek 213
12 ཐི་ཤོ་ལེགས། Thisho Lek 234
13 གུང་རུ་ལེགས། Gongru Lek 249
14 འབྲོང་ཞེར་ལེགས། Drong Shi Lek 267
15 ཨི་ཤོ་ལེགས། Isho Lek 285
16 ཟ་ནམ་ཟིན་ལྡེ། SaNam Sin Dhe 321
17 ལྡེ་འཕྲུལ་ནམ་གཞུང་བཙན། Dhe ThrulNam ShungTsen 339
18 སེ་སྣོལ་ལྷམ་ལྡེ། Senol Lham Dhe 357
19 སེ་སྣོལ་པོ་ལྡེ། Senol Po Dhe 376
20 ལྡེ་སྣོལ་ནམ། Dhe Nol Nam 394
21 ལྡེ་སྣོལ་པོ། Dhe Nol Po 411
22 ལྡེ་རྒྱལ་པོ། Dhe Gyalpo 431
23 ལྡེ་སྤྲིན་བཙན། Dhe TrinTsen 447
24 རྒྱལ་ལྡེ་རེ་ལུང་བཙན། Gyalte Ri Long Tsen 466
25 ཁྲི་བཙན་ནམ། Tri Tsen Nam 483
26 ཁྲི་སྒྲ་སྤུངས་བཙན། Trida Pung Tsen 537
27 ཁྲི་ཐོག་རྗེ་ཐོག་བཙན། Trithok JeThok Tsen
28 ལྷ་ཐོ་ཐོ་རི་གཉན་བཙན། Lha Thothori Nyan Tsen(557 AD); According to Sir Cunningham.
29 ཁྲི་གཉན་གཟུང་བཙན། Trinyen Sung Tsen 574
30 འབྲོམ་སྙན་ལྡེའུ་འཛེ། Drom Nyen Dewu Ze 591
31 སྟག་རི་གཉན་གཟིགས། Tagri Nyan Sig ( 610)
32 གནམ་རི་སྲོང་བཙན། Namri Song Tsen (625)
སྲོང་བཙན་སྒམ་པོ། Song Tsen Gampo (617-650/Iron-Dog;ref White Book); He was born in Fire-Ox, according to "some" Tibetan
sources. The only Fire-Ox within 8th and 7th Pre-Rabjung is either 557 or 617 respectively. Kongjo arrived in Tibet in 641 ie Iron-Ox year according to While Book of Tibet. DunHuang Documents(DD) confirms that Tibetan language was established during King Songtsen Gampo. Ref: DD:p1287: 0452
King Songtsen conquered ShangShung (Ref: DD: P1287:0434). Emperor Songtsen sacrificed 100 horses (Ref: DD: p1287: 0265).
34 གུང་སྲོང་གུང་བཙན། Gung Song Gung Tsen (He died young and 33rd King continued)
མང་སྲོང་མང་བཙན། Mangsong Mangtsen(653-676); Minister Gar Thong Tsen helped him rule the country
36 འདུས་སྲོང་མང་པོ་རྗེ། Dusong Mangpoje(676-704)
37 ཁྲི་ལྡེ་གཙུག་བརྟན། (མེས་ཨག་ཚོམ་ཡང་།) TridheTsugten or Mes-Agtsom (680-743)
ཁྲི་སྲོང་ལྡེ་བཙན། Trisong Detsen (755-797)
ShantaRakshita and PadmaSambhava were invited to Tibet; He had 3 son: Mune Tsenpo, Mutig Tsenpo and TriDhe SongTsen was also refered to as SenaLekzinYon. Note: many writers are confused with this "two name" for one individual and wrongly believed that Trisong Detsen had four sons.
39 མུ་ནེ་བཙན་པོ། MuneTsenpo (797-799?)
ཁྲི་ལྡེ་སྲོང་བཙན་སད་ན་ལེགས་མཇིང་ཡོན། TriDhe Songtsen or Sena Lekzin Yon(798-804); Tibet was disintegrating. Mutig Tsenpo was ruling Tsang during this period. Date and the comment "First Tibetan History was written" is by A.H. Francke.
41 ཁྲི་རལ་པ་ཅན། TriRalpa Chen (815-836)
འུ་དུམ་བཙན་ནམ་ཡོངས་གྲགས་ལ་གླང་དར་མ། Wudum Tsen or LangDarma(a nickname) (837-842)
For the next 300 years or so Tibet was in Chaos.
44 Sakya Rule (1253-)
45 PhakDru Period(1358)
46 Rinpong Period(1451)
47 Depa Tsangpa Period(1618)
49 Gaden Phodrang or Dalai Lama Period
Dalai Lamas (1....14)
01 དགེ་འདུན་འགྲུབ། Gedun Drupa (TsangShabToe:Tibet:1391-1474)
02 དགེ་འདུན་རྒྱ་མཚོ།Gedum Gyatso (TsangTaNag:Tibet:1475-1542)
03 བསོད་ནམས་རྒྱ་མཚོ།Sonam Gyatso (ToeLungTse:Tibet:1543-1588)
04 ཡོན་ཏན་རྒྱ་མཚོ།Yonten Gyatso (SokYul:Mongol:1589-1616)
05 ངག་དབང་བློ་བཟང་རྒྱ་མཚོ།Nagwang Lobsang Gyatso, the Great fifth, (ChongGye:Tibet:1617-1682)
06 ཚངས་དབྱངས་རྒྱ་མཚོ།Tseyang Gyatso (MonYul:India:1683-1706)
07 བསྐལ་བཟང་རྒྱ་མཚོ། Kalsang Gyatso (Lithang:Tibet:1708-1757)
08 བྱམས་སྤེལ་རྒྱ་མཚོ། Jampal Gyatso (TsangThopGyal:Tibet:1758-1804)
09 ལུང་རྟོགས་རྒྱ་མཚོ། Lungtok Gyatso (KhamDenCheKhor:Tibet:1805-1815)
10 ཚུལ་ཁྲིམས་རྒྱ་མཚོ།Tsultrim Gyatso (Lithang:Tibet:1816-1837)
11 མཁས་གྲུབ་རྒྱ་མཚོ།Khedrup Gyatso (MiNyakGarThar:Tibet:1838-1855/56)
12 འཕྲིན་ལས་རྒྱ་མཚོ།Trinley Gyatso (OelGa:Tibet:1856-1875)
13 ཐུབ་བསྟན་རྒྱ་མཚོ།Thupten Gyatso (DakpoLangDuen:Tibet:1876-1933)
14 བསྟན་འཛིན་རྒྱ་མཚོ།Tenzin Gyatso(KumBum, TakTser:Tibet:1935-)
Note: Gyatso means Ocean.
The first king of Tibet, Nytri Tsenpo, took over Tibet in, not earlier than 50 AD, according to Sir Cunningham. He also wrote that fifth successor to Lha
Thothori Nyntsen, the King SongTsen Gampo, was born in 627AD. Some Tibetan
record shows that Songtsen was born in Ox-Fire Tibetan year. Nearest Ox -Fire
year within the two Rabjung is 557AD or 617AD. For Rabjung Calculation go
. It will display one complete Rabjung including the year.
Guge usually refers to Upper Ngari(tib: Toe Ngari) and Lower Ngari. Guge once includes present Kullu(tibetan
name for Kulu is NunTi), Spiti, Lahul (Tibetan name is Garsha), Ladak, Zanskar, Balti
(both are in Kargil), Baltistan, Gilgit, ShangShung(North of Lhasa ), MangYul(all 9
division of Kyirong, Mustang or Lo in Tibetan, Nyalam and portion of north of Nepal),
Dolpo, Purang or Burang of TAR.
Today Guge lay in ruins. Google Earth location coordinate of Summer Palace of the Guge King is ( 31°27'56.99"N 79°40'9.62"E). It is about 17km west of Zanda county or about 200km North-west of Mt. Kailash.
List of the Guge Kings (According to A.H. Schecke- Ladak documents)
PalKhor (དཔལ་འཁོར།) -son of O'd Sung's (འོད་སྲུངས། ) some wrote that O'd Sung is son of Langdarma of Tibet(Yarlung).
Another version narrates that Tashi Tsen, Lord of Ngari, invited Kyide Nyimagon, the son of Khortsen, to TaglaKhar, Purang, and offered his only daughter KhorChong in marriage to him. He appointed Kyide NyimaGon his successor. NyimaGon’s kingdom includes even Lahul. Ref: March of Central Asia by Ram Rahul;page 38.
02 སྐྱེད་སྡེ་ཉི་མ་མགོན། Kyide NyimaGon; He had three sons.
ཆུང་བ་ལྡེ་བཙུན་མགོན། ཞང་ཞུང་སྡེ་གུ་གེའི་མངའ་འོག་གསུམ། (Youngest DetsunGon ruled Shang Shung and the three provinces of Guge(Guge, Spiti, ZangsKar); Elder son, PegyiGon, ruled Mang Yul(other wrote Ladakh)(ཆེ་བ་དཔལ་ལྡེ་རིག་པ་མགོན། མང་ཡུལ། ) and middle son, TashiGon, ruled Purang( འབྲིང་པོ་བཀྲ་ཤིས་ལྡེ་མགོན། སྤུ་རངས།); DeTsunGon had two sons. Shang Shung is to the north of Lhasa
སྲོང་ངེ། (Song Nye, son of DeTsunGon. He had three sons; LhaDe reigned and his brothers Yeshi O'd(Mangda) and Shewa O'd became mo nk who went to invite Atisha to Guge. Karluks Turks imprisoned Yeshi O'd for ranson). Other version is that PegyiGon’s eldest son, Mangda, succeeded him but became monk later and called himself Yeshi O’d.
ལྷ་ལྡེ། (Lha De/O'd De); Subti Sri Shanti was invited and did translation work. Atisha (980-1053) arrived in Guge in year 1038 and Lhasa in 1041ad(there is another date, 1045ad).
རྩེ་ལྡེ། (Tse De); Invited Shanti Bhadra and Buddhist council was held in Guge in 1075ad
07 འབར་ལྡེ། (Bhar De)
08 བཀྲ་ཤིས་ལྡེ། (Tashi De)
09 བྷ་ལྡེ། (Bha De)
11 བཙན་ཕྱུག་ལྡེ། (TsenChug De)
12 བཀྲ་ཤིས་ལྡེ། (Tashi De)
13 གྲགས་བཙན་ལྡེ། (Dragtsen De); He built image of Manjushri, Stupa, Samvara, Maitreya
14 གྲགས་པ་ལྡེ། (Dragpa De)
15 ཨ་སོ་ལྡེ། (Ahso De)
16 ཨན་ན་རྨལ། (A-na Mel); He wrote(copied) whole Kagur(103 Volumes) in Gold
17 རེའུ་རྨལ། (Riwu Mel);
18 སང་གྷ་རྨལ། (Sangha Mel)
19 འཛིན་དར་རྨལ། (Zindhar Mel)
20 ཨ་འཛིང་རྨལ། (A-Zing Mel)
21 ཀ་ལན་རྨལ། (Kalen Mel)
22 བར་ཏབ་རྨལ། (Pratab Mel)
23 ཌུཎ་རྨལ། (DhuunNaa Mel)
24 པྰ་ཏི་རྨལ། (Pati Mel)
End of Guge(1630 AD)
A Portuguese Jesuit, Father Antonio Da Andrada, from Goa, India, reached Tsaparang, capital of Guge. He set out on March 1624, most likely with Manasariwar pilgrimages. Andrada may or may not have baptized King Chodakpo but a war with Ladakh ensued. In 1630ad Ladakh King Sengye Namgyal captured Guge. Fort (lat:31.804893 Long:78.642803) Sengye Khar (Khar means Fort in Tibetan), in ruins, at Shipki La(La means mountain in Tibetan) is from that era.
1 Shang Shung, Yarlung, Guge do not necessarily have existed one after the
other. They can exist at the same time periods. Guge and Tibet seems to have
existed parallel if Atisha visit Guge in 1038. Yarlung began in 50AD.
2 History and propaganda
Who writes history and who to trust sans documents? For instance, who built
the present Potala Palace and why?
Potala, the white part, was built by V Dalai Lama(1617-1682). As for why he
built it, there is no answer. It is also said that Regent kept the demise of V Dalai
lama secret from public for 6 years so that Potala could be completed without
disruption(Historically, internal feuds and invasions by neighbor is inevitable when there is a power vacuum in government) as wished by the great fifth.
Also some claim that Tibet had to have a script before King Songtsen Gampo
because how else he would write a letter to seek the hand of Daughter of Nepal
king. This is illogical too.
If history tells us anything, Nepal King offered his daughter to Songtsen Gampo
to avoid invasion by powerful Tibet. Why King of Nepal and China would offer
their daughter to a Tibetan King(stranger) who is from a different culture and
language. What kind of parent will betroth their daughter to a stranger if they
are not under pressure? Under such circumstance, question of writing a letter
to Nepal King does not arise. Of course, there may have been script before
Songtsen. Until there is a archaeological evidence Songtsen must have a good
reason to send 5 Tibetan youngster to India to learn Language and ask
ThumiSambota, one of the student, to create script for the Tibetans if there is
one already in existence in Tibet. DunHuang Documents confirms that Tibetan language was established during King Songtsen Gampo.
Ref: DunHuang Document: p1287: 0452.
Look at following Tibetan and Hindi script side by side. They sound exactly the
same. Out of 30 Tibetan alphabets 23 sounds same. Even writings have some
|༡ ||༢ ||༣ ||༤ ||༥
||༦ ||༧ ||༨ ||༩ ||༠
??: means no English equivalent sound possible.
3 Powerful Monasteries had influence over wide population and local economy
of Tibet. They deserve separate mention but history of Tibet does not change
either way except internal feuds and power struggles are exposed.
4 Until Tibet is freed exploration and excavations of history will remain buried.
5 Some writer mistook Tobacco Pouch with that of Paak Pouch-read above