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Mindful Training
༈ གླང་རེ་ཐང་པ་རྡོ་རྗེ་སེང་གེས་མཛད་པའི་བློ་སྦྱོང་ཚིག་བརྒྱད་མ་བཞུགས་སོ།
Eight Verses for Mind-Training Composed by Geshe Langri Thangpa Dorjee Singghe (1054-1123).
Audio: H.H. the Dalai Lama
1 སེམས་བསྐྱེད།
༈ བདག་ནི་སེམས་ཅན་ཐམས་ཅད་ལ།
May I consider sentient beings,
dearer than the Wish-Fulfilling Gem.
Best wishes in mind,
Forever hold them dear.

2 སྙིང་རྗེ།
Whenever whoever I am with
May I see myself least important.
And sincerely others in mind,
Hold them dearly highest.

3 བསམ་གཏན།
Always observe my behaviour.
Negative thoughts may arise,
[and]Hurt myself and others.
Confront and suppress it with force.

4 བཟོད་པ།
For unpleasant sentient being is,
Overwhelmed by bad-karma and suffering.
When stumble upon rare treasure,
Cherish and empathise.

5 སྦྱིན་པ།
Out of envy others may,
Insult, abuse and treat me unjustly.
May I accept [freewill] defeat and loss,
And offer victory to them.

6 ཤེས་རབ།
Whom I have helped,
With great expectation.
Did immense harm and unjust in return.
May I see him as my true teacher.

7 ཚུལ་ཁྲིམས།
In essence, directly or indirectly,
Offer total wellness to mothers.
Suffering and pain of mothers,
Inconspicuously take upon myself.

8 བརྩོན་འགྲུས།
All above be free from
eight compromises of Acquired Concept.
Recognizing all phenomena is illusory,
May I be free from bondage of disgusting Attachment.
*mother: sentient beings
Transliteration: karma
 History of Tibet 101

History of Tibet: 101

Tibet: After 1949
The term TIBET refers to whole of Tibet known as Cholka-Sum (U- Tsang, Kham and Amdo). It includes Tibet Autonomous Region, Qinghai Province, two Tibetan Autonomous Prefectures and one Tibetan Autonomous County in Sichuan Province, one Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture and one Tibetan Autonomous County in Gansu Province and one Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture in Yunnan Province.

Land Size:
Tibet has total land mass of 2.5 million square kilometers, which includes U- Tsang, Kham and Amdo provinces. "Tibet Autonomous Region", consisting of U -Tsang and a small portion of Kham, has land mass of 1.2 million square kilometers. Therefore the bulk of Tibet lies outside the "TAR" region.

Political Status:
Tibet, today, is a occupied nation without representation in the United Nation.

Our Neighbors are China in the east; Myanmar in the South; India (Sikkim and Ladakh are included in India), Bhutan, Nepal to south-west; in the north are East Turkestan, (today it is called Xingjiang; Once it is called Khotan- a Buddhist nation), Taklamakan Desert, Tibetan Plateau and Gobi Desert.

Mountains and Rivers

Mount Everest: the highest Peak in the world
Himalaya and the Mount Everest (Google Earth location: 27°59'18.05"N 86° 55'31.41"E), Chomulungma in Tibetan, the highest peak in the world which stands at 27,940 ft is to the west of Tibet. There is a route from Tibet to scale Mount Everest. Most used route from Tibet is called North East Ridge Route. Alternative route is from Nepal or south side of the Mt. Everest.

Kunlun Mountain
It is to the north of Tibet. Kunlun Mountain runs from East-West direction and its chain of Mountains extends some 3,000 km.

Pamir, Hindu Kush, Karakoram Mountain ranges are to the west of Tibet. It is either melting of the snow or the rain water in monsoon that feeds major rivers in Asia which starts in Tibet. Without the snow, rivers will run dry when monsoon ends.

The Major Rivers

Major rivers in Asia begins in Tibet. They are Yarlung Tsangpo (Brahmaputra in India), Machu (Yellow River in China), Drichu (Yangtse in China), Senge Khabab (Indus in India), Phungchu (Arun in India), Gyalmo Ngulchu (Salween in Burma) and Zachu (Mekong in Thailand, Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos). These rivers support more than 100 millions of people in India, China, Burma, Laos, Thailand, Pakistan Vietnam and Cambodia. Mekong River alone supports 1,100 different freshwater species. Ecosystem provided by these rivers sustains habitats and biodiversity that is essential for freshwater livestocks.

Average Altitude

Tibet is about 4,000 meters or 13,000 feet above sea level. This means Tibet has less oxygen to breathe. Tourist are prone to Altitude Sickness.


Since 1959 Tibet has been under Chinese Communist rule. Today, Tibet is divided into the following administrative units: a) Tibet Autonomous Region, b) Qinghai Province, c) Tianzu Tibetan Autonomous County and Gannan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture in Gansu Province, d) Aba Tibetan-Qiang Autonomous Prefecture, Ganzi Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture and Mili Tibetan Autonomous County in Sichuan Province, e) Dechen Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture in Yunnan Province.


The total Tibetan population in Tibet is 6 million. Of them, 2.09 million live in the "TAR" and the rest live in the Tibetan areas outside the "TAR".

Tibet: Before 1949

Tibet had a Federal Government under the administration of H.H. the Dalai Lama. Law and order was not an issue due to sparse population and docile people. Strangers were always an honoured guest.

Tibetan Buddhism was the state religion of Tibet, however there were Muslims and Christians too. Tibet follows Buddhism which came from India, especially from Nalanda University. KamalakShila, ShantiRakShita, PadmaSamBhawa were some of the most celebrated scholars who came and lived in Tibet.

Tibetans speak Tibetan Language. Tibetan scripts consist of 30 alphabets and 5 vowels. Tibetan script was derived from Devnagiri or Nagri. See below for more on this.

There were 3 Provinces U-Tsang, Kham and Amdo. Total population was about 6 millions.

Barley, Ney in Tibetan, is grown widely. Barley is made into TsamPa. It is Tibetan version of morning Cereal- We invented the breakfast cereal. Just add tea, butter, cheese and walla! you have a sumptuous breakfast in a jiffy.

Tsampa: How it is made
Barley is threshed and winnowed for kernel. It is soaked in water. It is then popped in a huge skillet pan on open air fire with or without “hot” sand. It is then milled just like flour. Now it is ready to eat without baking! Tibet was sparsely populated and travelers would not see any humans for many days. Tsampa was a life saver. Just boil a cup of tea, if that is too much work, mix Tsampa with enough water and make a Pak for the lunch or dinner. Pak requires consistency of liquid and Tampa. Handful of Pak must fall apart however when it is rolled into a fist it must stick together. It should not be like a dough- too much liquid. Quickest way to mix Pak is to use a Pak Pouch to avoid spill over.

Another delicacy is Chang. Chang is home brewed beer made from Barley. Tibetan New Year celebration without boiled Chang(Egg nog), first thing in the morning is unlikely.

Tartary Buckwheat or Golden Buckwheat(tib:DroVue)
It is sometimes called "king of cereals" and is gluten free and high in Rutin (It is 5 times more than common Buckwheat). Many scientist believe that Golden buckwheat harvest began in central Tibet. Tibetan eat them without fully appreciating its health benefits.

Salt & Minerals
Himalaya Salt can reduce stomach acid. Beside taste it has therapeutic value too. Tibet did not exploit nature. River water, forest, mountains are in pristine state. Air is so clear, without pollution, that mountains looks so near but actually are really far off.

History: Tibet

As of today, we know there were Shang Shung, Yarlung and Guge kingdoms(Tholing, capital of Guge; Age of Rinchen Sangpo) that made up Tibet(U' Tsang, Kham and Amdo). However, Tibetan history, usually, start with onset of Buddhism (Yarlung) but that is half the story. Tibetans are the people of Shang Shung.

Shang Shung Kingdom

Shang Shung civilization is as old as iron age (1200bc) according to new findings. It predates Tibetan Buddhist history which began in late 50 ad. Our ancestors were Bon. They flourished within the boundaries of north of Lhasa ie Nagchu (Nagqu in Chinese) in the south, Kunlun Mountains in the north, Kunlan range near Pakistan border in the west and Nagchu in the east. Today, major area of this ancient civilization comes under present ChangThan or Tibetan Plateau. Once this bleak land was full of life according to recent Archeological discovery.

A big head Tiger fossil was discovered in 2010 which was 4 million year old. Here is a news clip report from discovery.com which reads, “ Dr. Tseng and his colleagues were excavating a rocky region of badlands in the Tibetan plateau in 2010 when they uncovered a fossil skull and one other bone that seemed to belong to a big cat.”

In 2007 Rhino fossil was discovered from Tibetan Plateau which belonged to ice-age (2.6 million – 12,000 years). Shang Shung was more desolate today than it was in the past. If more excavation are allowed more information may be uncovered about this lost Shang Shung civilization- our ancestors.

Here are few facts. Indus Valley Civilization (Bronze Age: 3500bc - 1500bc) spreads over huge area between present Pakistan, India. Shang Shung area was never explored. The last ice or glacial age, during which most of our planet was covered in thick glacier, was about 12,000 years ago. Plateau of Tibet may be the few pockets of land that did not experienced the last ice-age.

Tibetan started keeping record during the reign of Mutig Tsenpo who ruled over Tsang in 798ad. Ref: Ladak Chronicles by A.H. Francke. Muni Tsenpo ruled Yarlung(Lhasa) and his half-brother Mutig Tsenpo ruled Tsang. Therefore there was no record of Shang Shung appeared in Tibetan(Post Bon).

Bon followers or Bonpo believes that Shang Shung had 18 kings. Bon religion was founded by Sherab Miwo some 18,000(2013 – 18,000 = 15987bc) years ago.

Tibetans still perform rituals such as hoisting religious flag and burning junipers which is inherited from Bon tradition which has no connection with the Buddhism.

Since current Bon and Buddhism teachings are similar, which came first? To answer this, we must look at the original Bon which is completely different from current Bon. Otherwise, we have to conclude that Buddha copied his philosophy from Bon founder Shenrab who came to Shang Shung in 15,9897BC. However Buddha come into this world in 624bc.

Kings of Shang Shung


Yarlung: Lhasa

Tibetans would point to Yarlung kingdom as the beginning of Tibetan history. It was in 50ad when first King Nyatri Tsenpo was established. He was followed by 42 Kings. The last King Lang Darma was assassinated in 842 AD.

Origin of King of Tibet
There is a legend that Nyatri Tsenpo was one of 100 brothers of the Kurawa, epic story of Hindu Mahabharata. This is not likely as Mahabharata epic battle took place about 3137bc to 1000bc and war lasted for only 18 days. This date was in concert with iron-age which began about 3000bc (without iron weapons like sword, mace and shield cannot be made strong). Sir Cunningham wonders if King of Tibet, Ladakh and Nepal were descendant of Lichhavis and offshoot of King of Nepal family. The Lichhhavi clans were from Viasali and Vriji area that were driven out by Hindu king who persecuted Buddhist soon after the PariNirvana of the Sakya Muni Buddha.

Three kings stood out among them all. Songtsen Gampo(33rd), Trisong Detsen (38th) and Tri Ralpachen(41st) steered Tibet into new direction and made Tibet proud.

Tibet was at its pinnacle power when thirty third King Songtsen Gampo united whole of Tibet. Lesser neighbouring kings offered their daughters for marriages. Nepal king offered Bhrikuti Devi and Wen Cheng from China. Thumi Sambhota, after returning from India, invented Tibetan script and became minister. Many believe that Thume Sambhota was a fictional figure!

King Trisong Detsen, the thirty eighth, invited ShantaRakshita and Guru Padmasambhawa from India to teach Buddhism in Tibet. Samye, the first Buddhist monastery of Tibet, was replica of Odantapuri Monastery in Bihar Sharif, Bihar, India. Buddhist scriptures or Canons called Kagur and Tengur which runs into hundreds of volumes were translated from Sankskrit to newly created Tibetan script. Kagurs are word directly spoken by the Sakya Muni Buddha. As per DergeParma, a famous Printing House in Tibet, there are 103 Volumes of Kagur. Tengyur is a compilation of treatises and commentaries written by various thinkers of the past Indian Buddhist. Tengyur has about 224 volumes. These original works in Sanskrit are now lost. Completer work is now only in Tibetan text. Thanks to digital age they are now, Tibetan versions, in digital too. .

King Ralpachen, the forty first, built many temples and carried out the works of translations for posterities.

Dalai Lamas
Fifth Dalai Lama assumed spiritual and temporal power in 1642 AD and established “Gaden Phodrang” administration. He also built the White part of the Potala palace. Under his leadership Tibet become one. Shang Shung, Yarlung(Lhasa) and Guge were, once again, brought under Lhasa's control. Current Dalai Lama, Tenzin Gyatso, is the 14th.

Yarlung Kings
གཉའ་ཁྲི་བཙན་པོ། Nyatri Tsenpo (50AD); According to Cunningham and Hiuen Tsang's travel record.
02 མུ་ཁྲི་བཙན་པོ། Mutri Tsenpo 68AD
03 དིང་ཁྲི་བཙན་པོ། Dingtri Tsenpo 86AD
04 སོ་ཁྲི་བཙན་པོ། Sotri Tsenpo 104
05 མེར་ཁྲི་བཙན་པོ། Mertri Tsenpo 124
06 གདགས་ཁྲི་བཙན་པོ། Daktri Tsenpo 142
07 སྲིབ་ཁྲི་བཙན་པོ། Sibtri Tsenpo 142
08 གྲི་གུམ་བཙན་པོ། Drigum Tsenpo 159
09 པུ་ལྡེ་གུང་རྒྱལ། (བྱ་ཁྲི་བཙན་པོའང་།) PuDae Gungyal/Jatri Tsenpo 178
10 ཨེ་ཤོ་ལེགས། Esho Lek 194
11 དེ་ཤོ་ལེགས། Desho Lek 213
12 ཐི་ཤོ་ལེགས། Thisho Lek 234
13 གུང་རུ་ལེགས། Gongru Lek 249
14 འབྲོང་ཞེར་ལེགས། Drong Shi Lek 267
15 ཨི་ཤོ་ལེགས། Isho Lek 285
16 ཟ་ནམ་ཟིན་ལྡེ། SaNam Sin Dhe 321
17 ལྡེ་འཕྲུལ་ནམ་གཞུང་བཙན། Dhe ThrulNam ShungTsen 339
18 སེ་སྣོལ་ལྷམ་ལྡེ། Senol Lham Dhe 357
19 སེ་སྣོལ་པོ་ལྡེ། Senol Po Dhe 376
20 ལྡེ་སྣོལ་ནམ། Dhe Nol Nam 394
21 ལྡེ་སྣོལ་པོ། Dhe Nol Po 411
22 ལྡེ་རྒྱལ་པོ། Dhe Gyalpo 431
23 ལྡེ་སྤྲིན་བཙན། Dhe TrinTsen 447
24 རྒྱལ་ལྡེ་རེ་ལུང་བཙན། Gyalte Ri Long Tsen 466
25 ཁྲི་བཙན་ནམ། Tri Tsen Nam 483
26 ཁྲི་སྒྲ་སྤུངས་བཙན། Trida Pung Tsen 537
27 ཁྲི་ཐོག་རྗེ་ཐོག་བཙན། Trithok JeThok Tsen
28 ལྷ་ཐོ་ཐོ་རི་གཉན་བཙན། Lha Thothori Nyan Tsen(557 AD); According to Sir Cunningham.
29 ཁྲི་གཉན་གཟུང་བཙན། Trinyen Sung Tsen 574
30 འབྲོམ་སྙན་ལྡེའུ་འཛེ། Drom Nyen Dewu Ze 591
31 སྟག་རི་གཉན་གཟིགས། Tagri Nyan Sig ( 610)
32 གནམ་རི་སྲོང་བཙན། Namri Song Tsen (625)
སྲོང་བཙན་སྒམ་པོ། Song Tsen Gampo (617-650/Iron-Dog;ref White Book); He was born in Fire-Ox, according to "some" Tibetan sources. The only Fire-Ox within 8th and 7th Pre-Rabjung is either 557 or 617 respectively. Kongjo arrived in Tibet in 641 ie Iron-Ox year according to While Book of Tibet. DunHuang Documents(DD) confirms that Tibetan language was established during King Songtsen Gampo. Ref: DD:p1287: 0452 King Songtsen conquered ShangShung (Ref: DD: P1287:0434). Emperor Songtsen sacrificed 100 horses (Ref: DD: p1287: 0265).
34 གུང་སྲོང་གུང་བཙན། Gung Song Gung Tsen (He died young and 33rd King continued)
མང་སྲོང་མང་བཙན། Mangsong Mangtsen(653-676); Minister Gar Thong Tsen helped him rule the country
36 འདུས་སྲོང་མང་པོ་རྗེ། Dusong Mangpoje(676-704)
37 ཁྲི་ལྡེ་གཙུག་བརྟན། (མེས་ཨག་ཚོམ་ཡང་།) TridheTsugten or Mes-Agtsom (680-743)
ཁྲི་སྲོང་ལྡེ་བཙན། Trisong Detsen (755-797) ShantaRakshita and PadmaSambhava were invited to Tibet; He had 3 son: Mune Tsenpo, Mutig Tsenpo and TriDhe SongTsen was also refered to as SenaLekzinYon. Note: many writers are confused with this "two name" for one individual and wrongly believed that Trisong Detsen had four sons.
39 མུ་ནེ་བཙན་པོ། MuneTsenpo (797-799?)
ཁྲི་ལྡེ་སྲོང་བཙན་སད་ན་ལེགས་མཇིང་ཡོན། TriDhe Songtsen or Sena Lekzin Yon(798-804); Tibet was disintegrating. Mutig Tsenpo was ruling Tsang during this period. Date and the comment "First Tibetan History was written" is by A.H. Francke.
41 ཁྲི་རལ་པ་ཅན། TriRalpa Chen (815-836)
འུ་དུམ་བཙན་ནམ་ཡོངས་གྲགས་ལ་གླང་དར་མ། Wudum Tsen or LangDarma(a nickname) (837-842) For the next 300 years or so Tibet was in Chaos.
44 Sakya Rule (1253-)
45 PhakDru Period(1358)
46 Rinpong Period(1451)
47 Depa Tsangpa Period(1618)
49 Gaden Phodrang or Dalai Lama Period

Dalai Lamas (1....14)

01 དགེ་འདུན་འགྲུབ། Gedun Drupa (TsangShabToe:Tibet:1391-1474)
02 དགེ་འདུན་རྒྱ་མཚོ།Gedum Gyatso (TsangTaNag:Tibet:1475-1542)
03 བསོད་ནམས་རྒྱ་མཚོ།Sonam Gyatso (ToeLungTse:Tibet:1543-1588)
04 ཡོན་ཏན་རྒྱ་མཚོ།Yonten Gyatso (SokYul:Mongol:1589-1616)
05 ངག་དབང་བློ་བཟང་རྒྱ་མཚོ།Nagwang Lobsang Gyatso, the Great fifth, (ChongGye:Tibet:1617-1682)
06 ཚངས་དབྱངས་རྒྱ་མཚོ།Tseyang Gyatso (MonYul:India:1683-1706)
07 བསྐལ་བཟང་རྒྱ་མཚོ། Kalsang Gyatso (Lithang:Tibet:1708-1757)
08 བྱམས་སྤེལ་རྒྱ་མཚོ། Jampal Gyatso (TsangThopGyal:Tibet:1758-1804)
09 ལུང་རྟོགས་རྒྱ་མཚོ། Lungtok Gyatso (KhamDenCheKhor:Tibet:1805-1815)
10 ཚུལ་ཁྲིམས་རྒྱ་མཚོ།Tsultrim Gyatso (Lithang:Tibet:1816-1837)
11 མཁས་གྲུབ་རྒྱ་མཚོ།Khedrup Gyatso (MiNyakGarThar:Tibet:1838-1855/56)
12 འཕྲིན་ལས་རྒྱ་མཚོ།Trinley Gyatso (OelGa:Tibet:1856-1875)
13 ཐུབ་བསྟན་རྒྱ་མཚོ།Thupten Gyatso (DakpoLangDuen:Tibet:1876-1933)
14 བསྟན་འཛིན་རྒྱ་མཚོ།Tenzin Gyatso(KumBum, TakTser:Tibet:1935-)

Note: Gyatso means Ocean.

The first king of Tibet, Nytri Tsenpo, took over Tibet in, not earlier than 50 AD, according to Sir Cunningham. He also wrote that fifth successor to Lha Thothori Nyntsen, the King SongTsen Gampo, was born in 627AD. Some Tibetan record shows that Songtsen was born in Ox-Fire Tibetan year. Nearest Ox -Fire year within the two Rabjung is 557AD or 617AD. For Rabjung Calculation go here. It will display one complete Rabjung including the year.


Guge usually refers to Upper Ngari(tib: Toe Ngari) and Lower Ngari. Guge once includes present Kullu(tibetan name for Kulu is NunTi), Spiti, Lahul (Tibetan name is Garsha), Ladak, Zanskar, Balti (both are in Kargil), Baltistan, Gilgit, ShangShung(North of Lhasa ), MangYul(all 9 division of Kyirong, Mustang or Lo in Tibetan, Nyalam and portion of north of Nepal), Dolpo, Purang or Burang of TAR.

Capital of Guge was Tholing. Period between 989 to 1055 was Age of LoTsawa Rinchen Sangpo and Tholing became Mecca of Buddhism for Tibet and India. Ref: Buddhist Western Himalaya by Omacanda Handa, page 322

Kyithang is another city of Guge. Today Guge lay in ruins. Google Earth location coordinate of Summer Palace of the Guge King is ( 31°27'56.99"N 79°40'9.62"E). It is about 17km west of Zanda county or about 200km North-west of Mt. Kailash.

List of the Guge Kings (According to A.H. Schecke- Ladak documents)

PalKhor (དཔལ་འཁོར།) -son of O'd Sung's (འོད་སྲུངས། ) some wrote that O'd Sung is son of Langdarma of Tibet(Yarlung).

Another version narrates that Tashi Tsen, Lord of Ngari, invited Kyide Nyimagon, the son of Khortsen, to TaglaKhar, Purang, and offered his only daughter KhorChong in marriage to him. He appointed Kyide NyimaGon his successor. NyimaGon’s kingdom includes even Lahul. Ref: March of Central Asia by Ram Rahul;page 38.

02 སྐྱེད་སྡེ་ཉི་མ་མགོན། Kyide NyimaGon; He had three sons.
ཆུང་བ་ལྡེ་བཙུན་མགོན། ཞང་ཞུང་སྡེ་གུ་གེའི་མངའ་འོག་གསུམ། (Youngest DetsunGon ruled Shang Shung and the three provinces of Guge(Guge, Spiti, ZangsKar); Elder son, PegyiGon, ruled Mang Yul(other wrote Ladakh)(ཆེ་བ་དཔལ་ལྡེ་རིག་པ་མགོན། མང་ཡུལ། ) and middle son, TashiGon, ruled Purang( འབྲིང་པོ་བཀྲ་ཤིས་ལྡེ་མགོན། སྤུ་རངས།); DeTsunGon had two sons. Shang Shung is to the north of Lhasa
སྲོང་ངེ། (Song Nye, son of DeTsunGon. He had three sons; LhaDe reigned and his brothers Yeshi O'd(Mangda) and Shewa O'd became mo nk who went to invite Atisha to Guge. Karluks Turks imprisoned Yeshi O'd for ranson). Other version is that PegyiGon’s eldest son, Mangda, succeeded him but became monk later and called himself Yeshi O’d.
ལྷ་ལྡེ། (Lha De/O'd De); Subti Sri Shanti was invited and did translation work. Atisha (980-1053) arrived in Guge in year 1038 and Lhasa in 1041ad(there is another date, 1045ad).
རྩེ་ལྡེ། (Tse De); Invited Shanti Bhadra and Buddhist council was held in Guge in 1075ad
07 འབར་ལྡེ། (Bhar De)
08 བཀྲ་ཤིས་ལྡེ། (Tashi De)
09 བྷ་ལྡེ། (Bha De)
10 NagaDeva
11 བཙན་ཕྱུག་ལྡེ། (TsenChug De)
12 བཀྲ་ཤིས་ལྡེ། (Tashi De)
13 གྲགས་བཙན་ལྡེ། (Dragtsen De); He built image of Manjushri, Stupa, Samvara, Maitreya
14 གྲགས་པ་ལྡེ། (Dragpa De)
15 ཨ་སོ་ལྡེ། (Ahso De)
16 ཨན་ན་རྨལ། (A-na Mel); He wrote(copied) whole Kagur(103 Volumes) in Gold
17 རེའུ་རྨལ། (Riwu Mel);
18 སང་གྷ་རྨལ། (Sangha Mel)
19 འཛིན་དར་རྨལ། (Zindhar Mel)
20 ཨ་འཛིང་རྨལ། (A-Zing Mel)
21 ཀ་ལན་རྨལ། (Kalen Mel)
22 བར་ཏབ་རྨལ། (Pratab Mel)
23 ཌུཎ་རྨལ། (DhuunNaa Mel)
24 པྰ་ཏི་རྨལ། (Pati Mel)

End of Guge(1630 AD)
A Portuguese Jesuit, Father Antonio Da Andrada, from Goa, India, reached Tsaparang, capital of Guge. He set out on March 1624, most likely with Manasariwar pilgrimages. Andrada may or may not have baptized King Chodakpo but a war with Ladakh ensued. In 1630ad Ladakh King Sengye Namgyal captured Guge. Fort (lat:31.804893 Long:78.642803) Sengye Khar (Khar means Fort in Tibetan), in ruins, at Shipki La(La means mountain in Tibetan) is from that era.

1 Shang Shung, Yarlung, Guge do not necessarily have existed one after the other. They can exist at the same time periods. Guge and Tibet seems to have existed parallel if Atisha visit Guge in 1038. Yarlung began in 50AD.

2 History and propaganda
Who writes history and who to trust sans documents? For instance, who built the present Potala Palace and why?

Potala, the white part, was built by V Dalai Lama(1617-1682). As for why he built it, there is no answer. It is also said that Regent kept the demise of V Dalai lama secret from public for 6 years so that Potala could be completed without disruption(Historically, internal feuds and invasions by neighbor is inevitable when there is a power vacuum in government) as wished by the great fifth.

Also some claim that Tibet had to have a script before King Songtsen Gampo because how else he would write a letter to seek the hand of Daughter of Nepal king. This is illogical too.

If history tells us anything, Nepal King offered his daughter to Songtsen Gampo to avoid invasion by powerful Tibet. Why King of Nepal and China would offer their daughter to a Tibetan King(stranger) who is from a different culture and language. What kind of parent will betroth their daughter to a stranger if they are not under pressure? Under such circumstance, question of writing a letter to Nepal King does not arise. Of course, there may have been script before Songtsen. Until there is a archaeological evidence Songtsen must have a good reason to send 5 Tibetan youngster to India to learn Language and ask ThumiSambota, one of the student, to create script for the Tibetans if there is one already in existence in Tibet. DunHuang Documents confirms that Tibetan language was established during King Songtsen Gampo. Ref: DunHuang Document: p1287: 0452.

Look at following Tibetan and Hindi script side by side. They sound exactly the same. Out of 30 Tibetan alphabets 23 sounds same. Even writings have some resemblance.

kakhaganga?? chaja??tatha danapaphaba English Eq
ལྦ Tibetan
?????? ?????? Devnagari
ma??tsazawa ??????yara la shasaha a English Eq

12345 67890 English Eq

??: means no English equivalent sound possible.

3 Powerful Monasteries had influence over wide population and local economy of Tibet. They deserve separate mention but history of Tibet does not change either way except internal feuds and power struggles are exposed.

4 Until Tibet is freed exploration and excavations of history will remain buried.

5 Some writer mistook Tobacco Pouch with that of Paak Pouch-read above Tsampa section.