Quantum Mechanics 101
Light illuminates matters by hitting them with photons(light particles) which are deflected because it is very light. Our eyes (retina receptors) detect it and brain interprets it for us –flower from tree. Sunlight (photon) must pass through space which is a vacuum and earth’s atmosphere which is filled with air. Thus light is assumed to be a Particle (Photon) without weight!(a bold assumption). Note: Tail of Comets always point away from the sun which indicates that photons have energy without weight(without mass to be correct).
Unlike light, sound is yet another strange thing. We can speak and hear each other at a distance.
Let us now transport ourselves to the moon and survive there without oxygen. On the moon there is no air- no oxygen too. As moon does not have air, we cannot hear each other however loud we may speak. Sound is produced by vibration and it needs an external medium such as air, water, electron and any solid material that can vibrate if right frequency is applied(we don’t hear what dogs hear). Sound is not a particle but a wave. Without a medium such as air or water wave cannot be produced and thus sound cannot travel from position A to position B.
Wait a minute! Light can be bent. People who wear eye glasses know this or should know. It is called refraction. Light bends when it travels through a different medium such as air, glass or water.
Take two “polarized” eye glasses- A and B. Hold eye glass A in front of B and look though. You will see everything what is in front of you. Now keep eye glass A in the same position but turn eye glass B about 90 degree. You will not see a thing in front of you! All lights shut off. Same effect can be observed when LCD TV is viewed with polarized eyeglass and turn your head about 90 degrees – TV pictures will not pass through your polarized glass.
Above strange behavior of light passing through(or blocked) two polarized eyeglass can be explained only if light is a WAVE. What is light then – a particle or wave?
This video has lengthy intro, have patients.
Light behaves like a wave and it also behaves like a particle. What is light in the final analysis- wave or particle?
Since humans, scientist, are strange people we want light to behave either wave or particle but not both at the same time. That is the real world as we understand it - classical physics.
Welcome to weird world of Quantum Physics: ངོ་བོ་གཅིག་ལ་ལྡོག་པ་ཐ་དད།
In Buddhist philosophy there is a phrase Different Aspects of the Same Identity(ངོ་བོ་གཅིག་ལ་ལྡོག་པ་ཐ་དད)
First, watch this video. Good animation speaks volumes.
This experiment shows that “light” is a particle but it also behaves like a wave.
In a real world everything is in its definite state. In Quantum state, however, things are in superposition state which means its final state is not yet revealed or known. Its final state is revealed only at the time of observation.
For example, let us assume that we have a mile long tube and at the center of this tube we installed a device that sends two live Toads simultaneously to each end of the tube in a sealed package. At one end of the tube there is Tom (Detector/Observer A) and at the other end Jerry (Detector/Detector B) to receive the packages. When Tom opens his package, he finds a dead Toad. At the same time, when Jerry opens his package, at the other end, he finds a live Toad. Both the Tom and Jerry will never find both the Toads alive or dead at the same time. Instead if Tom finds a live Toad Jerry will find his Toad dead and vise versa.
Let us now move the middle Device much closer to Tom. The result is the same. As Tom is closer to the Device and he will learn the state of his Toad only after he opens his sealed package, there is no way for the Jerry to know the state of his Toad without opening his sealed package- remember both the Toads are alive when they left the Device. How in the world these two packages learn or send messages? The message was send much faster than the speed of the light too!
Spooky action at a distance
Einstein called it “spooky action at a distance” and many argued that such phenomenon defies “cause and effect” theory of classical physics. Faster then the speed of light means effect took place before the cause! EPR (Einstein,Podolsky,Rosen) refused to accept such phenomena and Bell’s Inequality theorem tried to prove such phenomena was mathematically wrong.
All are wrong. Quantum world defies classical laws.
To explain information passed between observer A and B(above situation) at a speed faster than the light, scientist came up with the Entanglement. It means Toads are in constant contact with each other since they left the Device. As soon as Tom opened the sealed package, Toad on its way to Jerry learned the state of the Toms Toad and changed or transformed itself. That can happen only if Toads are in Entanglement State.
Modern computers are based principle of Turing Machine first proposed by Alan Turing in 1937. It works on two bits of information ie 1 and 0 state of its electric circuit. An electrical wire with a switch on one end and a simple current or voltage meter at the other end is a two state device – 1 indicates wire is live and 0 indicates wire is dead. Such a simple machine offers two bits of information. If we line-up eight such wires side by side, it will offer us 256 different or unique information. It is base 2 with power N or 2 to the power of 8 ie 256.
Quantum bits or Quibits offer at least 3 states instead of two. If we have a single electric wire with 3 gates or switches (0 or 1 or “1 and 0” states) we can ask three different question or information. If we line-up 8 such electrical wires or gates it will offer us 6561 unique information which is 25 times more information than the Turing Machines. It is base 3 with power N or 3 to the power of 8 ie 6561.
Karma/20th Nov. 2014